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Napoleon war ein Rassist, Menschenschinder, Massenmörder!

News in Französische Revolution & Napoleonische Epoche 20 Kommentare »
[b]
Frankreich verehrt ihn und feiert 200 Jubeljahre Feldherr, Kaiser und Genie. Doch Historiker ermahnen: Es führt kein Weg an der dunklen Wahrheit vorbei.[/b]
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Alle redeten vom Wetter

News in Französische Revolution & Napoleonische Epoche 1 Kommentar »
[b]
Es ist die erste Klimakatastrophe der Neuzeit und eine frühe Erfahrung globaler Zusammenhänge: Nachdem im Frühjahr 1815 der indonesische Vulkan Tambora ausgebrochen war, vereiste Nordamerika, und in Europa blieb der Sommer aus. Von Ronald D. Gerste[/b]

Als er am Abend des 5. April 1815, kurz vor Sonnenuntergang, das ferne Grollen vernimmt, ist der erste Gedanke von Thomas Stamford Raffles: eine Kanonade! Man kann es dem Gouverneur von Java nachsehen. Kaum vier Jahre zuvor hat Raffles reichlich Geschützdonner zu hören bekommen. Damals eroberten die Royal Navy und englische Truppen die tropische Inselwelt und machten Niederländisch-Java zu Britisch-Java, heute ein Teil des Staates Indonesien.

Doch das Donnern, das Raffles in seiner Residenz aufschreckt, hat nichts mit dem Krieg zu tun, und es kommt auch nicht aus Geschützrohren. Sondern es dringt aus fast 800 Kilometer Entfernung an sein Ohr: Auf der zu Britisch-Java gehörenden Insel Sumbawa hat an diesem Abend der Ausbruch des Mount Tambora begonnen.
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Die Stunde der Befreiung

News in Französische Revolution & Napoleonische Epoche Noch keine Kommentare »

Die Herrschaft Napoleons über Europa endete in nur drei Tagen: Mit einer mörderischen Schlacht, die hunderttausend Soldaten das Leben kostete.


[IMG]http://images.zeit.de/wissen/geschichte/2013-09/s23-voelkerschlacht-leipzig/s23-voelkerschlacht-leipzig-540x304.jpg[/IMG]
Gewonnen! Das Gemälde stellt die Siegesmeldung des Fürsten Karl Philipp zu Schwarzenberg an die verbündeten Monarchen Zar Alexander I. von Russland, Kaiser Franz I. von Österreich und König Friedrich Wilhelm III. von Preußen nach der Völkerschlacht bei Leipzig dar.

"Völkerschlacht", ein monströses Wort. Vielen Zeitgenossen mag sie so erschienen sein. Und tatsächlich blieb diese Schlacht, die da 1813 drei Tage lang vor den Toren Leipzigs tobte, bis zum Ersten Weltkrieg die größte Schlacht der Geschichte. Als das Gemetzel am 19. Oktober 1813 zu Ende ging, war die Vorherrschaft Napoleons über Europa gebrochen.
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»Ihr habt mich!« - Die Konvention von Tauroggen

News in Französische Revolution & Napoleonische Epoche 1 Kommentar »
[b]
Lange hat der preußische General von Yorck gezögert. Doch dann entscheidet er sich für den Ungehorsam – und verbündet sich im Dezember 1812 in der Konvention von Tauroggen mit den Russen gegen Napoleon.[/b]

Es war in den Tagen des Zweiten Weltkriegs. Einige Offiziere, schon zum Putsch gegen Hitler entschlossen, versuchen Generalfeldmarschall Erich von Manstein in ihre Pläne einzuweihen – gilt er doch als der fähigste General der Wehrmacht. Doch der hitlerhörige Manstein lehnt jeden Gedanken an Widerstand oder auch nur Widerspruch kategorisch ab: »Preußische Feldmarschälle meutern nicht!« Oberst Rudolf-Christoph von Gersdorff, einer der späteren Widerständler, will daraufhin geantwortet haben: »In der preußischen Geschichte gibt es genügend Beispiele dafür, daß hohe Generale gegen den Willen und Befehl ihres Königs gehandelt haben. Ich erinnere nur an Seydlitz und Yorck.«
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Das Grab im Wald

News in Französische Revolution & Napoleonische Epoche 2 Kommentare »

Wer war die geheimnisvolle "Dunkelgräfin" von Hildburghausen? Jetzt soll ihr Leichnam exhumiert werden.


[IMG]http://images.zeit.de/wissen/geschichte/2012-09/s17-marie-therese/s17-marie-therese-540x304.jpg[/IMG]
Marie Thérèse mit Bruder Louis Joseph, gemalt von Élisabeth Vigée-Lebrun 1787.

Das Grab soll ausgehoben werden. So hat es der Stadtrat zu Hildburghausen im Thüringer Wald am 27. Juni dieses Jahres beschlossen, um endlich Gewissheit zu haben, um wen genau es sich bei der »Dunkelgräfin« handelt, die seit 1837 auf dem Stadtberg begraben liegt. Doch während die einen schon die Touristenbusse anrollen sehen und die Kassen klingeln hören, formieren sich andere zum Widerstand und fordern: Lasst sie ruhen!

Wer nur war die geheimnisvolle Frau, die wegen ihrer grünen Brille und des Schleiers, der stets ihr Gesicht bedeckte, als »Dunkelgräfin« in die Geschichte eingegangen ist?

Die Spur führt ins Paris der Revolution, ins Jahr 1795...
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Keine Datscha in Borodino

News in Französische Revolution & Napoleonische Epoche 2 Kommentare »
[b]
Zwischen Napoleonkult und Nationalstolz feiert Russland das denkwürdige Jahr 1812.[/b]

Russland feiert in diesen Tagen den 200. Jahrestag eines hoch geschätzten Traumas. Am 24. Juni 1812 überquerte Napoleon mit seinen Truppen die Memel in östlicher Richtung. Er sollte ein halbes Jahr lang in Russland verlustreiche Schlachten schlagen, Moskau einnehmen, nach der Feuersbrunst die Stadt wieder verlassen und mit den Resten seiner Grande Armée in einem Elendstreck gen Heimat fliehen. Und dennoch – obwohl Napoleons Krieg den Westen Russlands verwüstete und Hunderttausende das Leben kostete, verschaffte er den Regierenden des Vielvölkerreichs zugleich ein kostbares Gut: das Gefühl der Volkseinheit.
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Litauen: Am Grab einer Armee

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Die Männer starben auf verlorenem Posten, sie waren auf litauischer Erde erfroren, 18 französische Elitesoldaten, deren Leichen man jüngst fand. Nur ihre Uniformknöpfe verrieten, dass sie dem größten Heer angehört hatten, das je aus Europa zusammenkam: Napoleons Grande Armée. Der auf die Invasion Russlands folgenden Rückzug führte in eine Tragödie, die in Vilnius im Winter 1812 unvorstellbare Ausmaße annahm. Vor einem Jahrzehnt begann diese Geschichte zurückzukehren in Litauens heutige Hauptstadt, die damals zum Zarenreich gehört hatte. 2001 stießen Bagger in einem Neubauviertel auf das erste riesige Leichenfeld. Opfer der Nazis oder des KGB, vermutete man spontan. Doch preußische Kavallerieknöpfe, polnische Adler, spanische Münzen, kroatische Kreuze, sogar französische Marineabzeichen zeugten alsbald davon, wo überall in Europa vor 200 Jahren Soldaten vermisst wurden.
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Modernisierung mit mächtiger Blutspur

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Am Anfang des modernen, als Einheit gedachten Europa steht Napoleon. Seine Politik weckte Träume von einer besseren Zukunft. Doch die kriegerische Durchsetzung traumatisierte den Kontinent.

Sein Wirken liegt zweihundert Jahre zurück, was soll er uns noch interessieren, der kleine Korse, der zum grossen Imperator wurde? Den Feldzügen und blutigen Schlachten, mit denen er Europa traumatisierte, sind schlimmere Schrecken gefolgt, Weltkriege und Völkermorde, hinter denen die napoleonische Epoche verblasst. Bonaparte treibt die kollektive Erinnerung der heute Lebenden nicht mehr um. Man könnte den berühmtesten Franzosen aller Zeiten den Geschichtsbüchern und seinen Gralshütern in Frankreich überlassen. Theoretisch. In der Praxis aber vermag eine Ausstellung wie «Napoleon und Europa – Traum und Trauma» die Besucher in Scharen anzulocken.
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Napoleon: Monstrum und Befreier

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Eine intelligente, provokante Ausstellung in Bonn wagt sich an Napoleon und seine Epoche.


[IMG]http://images.zeit.de/wissen/geschichte/2010-12/napoleon-bonaparte/napoleon-bonaparte-540x304.jpg[/IMG]
Das Gemälde "Napoleon überquert die Alpen" von Jacques-Louis David von 1801

Längst ist es zum geflügelten Wort geworden, das Diktum Thomas Nipperdeys: »Am Anfang war Napoleon.« Was der Münchner Historiker für die deutsche Staatenwelt des 19. Jahrhunderts reklamierte, trifft aber auch für die anderen Länder Europas zu. Keiner hat die Geschichte des Kontinents so geprägt wie Bonaparte, der Erste Konsul und Kaiser der Franzosen. Diese europäische Dimension seiner Herrschaft bewusst zu machen ist das Ziel der großen Ausstellung die gerade in der Bundeskunsthalle in Bonn unter der Schirmherrschaft von Angela Merkel und Nicolas Sarkozy eröffnet wurde.
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Die erste Republik - Nie wieder Untertan

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Die Mainzer Republik war die erste Demokratie auf deutschem Boden. Von ihrer so kurzen wie bewegten Geschichte geht bis heute ein faszinierendes Leuchten aus.


[IMG]http://images.zeit.de/wissen/geschichte/2010-09/s30-mainzjakobiner/s30-mainzjakobiner-540x304.jpg[/IMG]
Versammlung des Mainzer Jakoninerklubs

In jener Märznacht des Jahres 1793 haben die Mainzer Polizeidiener ausnahmsweise keinen Blick für die Zecher, die ihnen aus den illegalen Schankstuben fast in die Arme taumeln. Eigentlich müssten sie die Trunkenbolde in die Arrestzelle stecken, wegen Missachtung der Sperrstunde. Aber heute schauen sie gnädig weg. Sie haben Wichtigeres zu tun. Einen Auftrag von höchster Stelle gilt es zu erfüllen.

Jeder von ihnen trägt eine Tasche, voll mit Flugschriften, laut Beschluss der Stadtoberen durch »alle Polizeidiener, Zeitungs- und Blättchenträger in jedem Hause in der Stadt in eins oder zwei Exemplarien abzugeben«. Unter jede Haustür kommt ein Flugblatt, auf jedes Fenstersims, auf jeden Treppenabsatz. Alle Mainzer sollen wissen, dass es den Feinden der Republik nun an den Kragen geht. »Intrige, Fanatismus, Heuchelei und Privatinteresse bieten alle Kräfte auf, um Euch wieder in Eure alten Ketten zu schmieden«, verkündet die Proklamation der Wahlkommissare. »Der Tag ist gekommen, wo man zwischen Freundschaft der Frankenrepublik und dem Hasse wählen muß, den sie den Tyrannen und ihren Anhängern geschworen haben; wo man zwischen Freiheit und Sklaverei wählen muß.«

Freiheit oder Sklaverei. Die Mainzer Republik, das erste bürgerlich-demokratische Gemeinwesen auf deutschem Boden, hat die Geduld mit den Zauderern, den Wankelmütigen und den Parteigängern des Ancien Régime verloren.
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Luise von Preussen - Keine von uns

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[b]
Königin Luise von Preußen war ganz anders, als oft behauptet. Das zeigt Daniel Schönpflug in einer ausgezeichneten Biografie.[/b]

[img]http://images.zeit.de/kultur/literatur/2010-07/luise-preussen/luise-preussen-540x304.jpg[/img]
Luise von Preußen, um 1800

In einer berühmten Vorlesungsreihe prägte der New Yorker Literaturkritiker Lionel Trilling 1970 zwei diametral entgegensetzte kulturelle Leitbegriffe, die er mit den englischen Worten Sincerity (Aufrichtigkeit) und authenticity (Authentizität) umschrieb. Sincerity hieß für Trilling die Bemühung des Einzelnen, das äußere soziale und das innere private Leben ohne Selbstverstellung möglichst in Einklang zu bringen. Authenticity dagegen sei von der Suche nach Selbstbefreiung und -offenbarung geprägt. Sincerity impliziere ein gewisses Verständnis für die Erfordernisse des Gesellschaftlichen, für Tradition und für die Notwendigkeit des redlichen Rollenspiels. Authenticity dulde im Gegenteil ungern das Konventionelle; sie verlange das ungebundene Ausleben des Ichs. In der Kulturgeschichte Westeuropas über die letzten 500 Jahre erkannte Trilling ein stetes Oszillieren zwischen diesen zwei ethischen Orientierungen. Spätestens seit der Romantik sei die westliche Moderne jedoch durch einen Siegeszug der Authentizität auf Kosten der alten Aufrichtigkeit gekennzeichnet gewesen.

Luise von Preußen lebte zwar in der Epoche der anbrechenden Romantik, blieb jedoch eindeutig und lebenslang dem Ethos der Aufrichtigkeit verpflichtet. Das Erste, was ihr an ihrem zukünftigen Mann, Kronprinz Friedrich Wilhelm von Preußen, positiv auffiel, war die schlichte Redlichkeit seines Wesens. »Der Prinz ist ausserordentlich gut und gerade«, schrieb sie an ihre Schwester Therese, nach der ersten Begegnung mit dem preußischen Thronfolger. »Kein unnötiger Schwarm von Worten begleiten seine Reden, sondern er ist erstaunend wahr.«

Mit der Suche nach Selbstverwirklichung hatte diese Vorliebe für Aufrichtigkeit nichts zu tun. Weder als Kronprinzessin (von 1793 an) noch als preußische Königin (von 1797 an) stellte Luise die ihr zugedachte Rolle jemals infrage. Das innere Empfinden wurde der öffentlichen Person konsequent untergeordnet. Sie war, wie der Berliner Historiker Daniel Schönpflug in seiner eleganten, intelligenten Biografie der Königin darlegt, eine Schauspielerin auf der Bühne der Macht. Sie spielte eine Hauptrolle in jenem »täglich neu inszenierten Stück namens Monarchie«. Vom Morgen bis tief in die Nacht durch das ganze Jahre hindurch musste sie sich dem Rhythmus des Hofes restlos anpassen. »Mach Dich darauf gefasst zu erfahren, dass ich bald sterben werde«, schrieb sie an ihre Schwester Therese im Februar 1794, »denn seitdem ich mit diesem Brief begann, habe ich immer nur getanzt […] Morgen ist Ball bei der Königinwitwe, übermorgen große Gesellschaft bei mir, Freitag Ball bei dem Grafen Alvensleben, für Sonnabend ist Gottseidank noch nichts festgelegt […] Da kann man wirklich seine Seele verlieren und sein Testament machen.«
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Die Politiker – das sind wir

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Schon der französische Philosoph und Revolutionär Condorcet wusste, dass ein Parlament allein noch keine Demokratie macht.


[IMG]http://images.zeit.de/wissen/geschichte/2010-07/s20-condorcet/s20-condorcet-540x304.jpg[/IMG]
Das Gemälde von Carl Wendling (1910) zeigt Pfälzer Freiheitsfreunde zur Zeit der Revolution. Das Bild hängt im Rathaus von Landau

Wie viel Mitsprache der Bürger braucht der Staat? Wie viel direkte Demokratie verträgt die Republik? Und vor allem: Wie ist das zu organisieren? Das sind die entscheidenden Fragen, die uns immer wieder zurückführen zu den Anfängen der modernen Demokratie in Europa, in die Tage der Französischen Revolution. Seit einiger Zeit findet dabei ein Denker erneut Beachtung, der die Revolution mit einer Reihe von wichtigen Texten begleitet hat und auch als politisch Handelnder eine bedeutende Rolle einnahm. Die Rede ist vom Marquis de Condorcet, dem Citoyen Caritat.

Der Nachwelt ist er fast nur noch durch sein Buch über die Fortschritte des menschlichen Geistes in Erinnerung geblieben. Kurz vor seinem Tod 1794 verfasst, teilt diese Schrift die menschliche Geschichte in neun Epochen des linearen Fortschritts und verlängert diese Entwicklung in eine zehnte, eine strahlende Epoche der Zukunft. Der Ruhm des optimistischen Werks prägte Cordorcets Bild. Besonders das 19. Jahrhundert feierte den Marquis. Als vermeintlicher Entdecker der geschichtlichen Bewegungsgesetze wurde er zu einem Säulenheiligen des Fortschrittsglaubens. Im 20. Jahrhundert indes wandelte sich das Bild. Jetzt erkannte die kritische »Dialektik der Aufklärung« im gepriesenen Fortschritt einen übersteigerten Rationalismus, dessen Vernunftobsession in freiheitsfeindliche, in autoritäre, ja totalitäre Maßnahmen umschlägt.
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Sie hat uns erklärt

News in Französische Revolution & Napoleonische Epoche 3 Kommentare »
[b]
Vor 200 Jahren schrieb Madame de Staël ihr Deutschland-Buch. Seither wissen die Franzosen, was sie von ihren Nachbarn zu halten haben.[/b]

Der fulminanten Premiere im Herbst 1810 schien nichts mehr im Wege zu stehen. Das dreibändige Werk lag in den Korrekturfahnen vor, die Zensur hatte nur ein paar geringfügige Einwände. Mit 10.000 Exemplaren sollte das Buch in einer für jene Zeit ungewöhnlich hohen Auflage gedruckt werden. Es hieß [i]De l’Allemagne[/i] (»Über Deutschland«), geschrieben hatte es Germaine de Staël. Doch dann kam alles ganz anders.

Am 25. September erhielt die Autorin den Bescheid des Polizeiministers Jean Marie René Savary, er habe die gesamte Auflage einstampfen lassen und fordere die Verfasserin auf, »binnen drei Tagen Frankreich zu verlassen«. Es traf sie wie ein Schlag.
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»Ich sehe lauter frohe, ruhige Tätigkeit«

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Erfolgreicher Handel und soziales Engagement gehören für viele Hamburger Kaufleute in der späten Aufklärungsphase zusammen. Einer von ihnen ist Caspar Voght: Im Dorf Flottbek gründet er einen Gutshof, auf dem er seine Ideale realisiert.


[IMG]http://images.zeit.de/wissen/geschichte/2010-06/s48-voght/s48-voght-540x304.jpg[/IMG]
''Der Menschenliebe von Menschenfreunden'' Stahlstich von L. Wolf aus dem Jahre 1805 Idealisierte Ansicht des Hamburger Schul- und Arbeitshauses (1800)

Ihre Stimmen hallen über das graugrüne Wasser, das sich hier vor den Toren der Stadt zur äußeren Alster gestaut hat. Mit Tränen in den Augen singen sie – fast achtzig Frauen und Männer, festlich gewandet, fröhlich gestimmt, feierlich gerührt. »Freie Deutsche, singt die Stunde, / Die der Knechtschaft Ketten brach. / Schwöret Treu dem großen Bunde / Uns’rer Schwester Frankreich nach«, so klingt es aus voller Kehle und voller Seele.

Die jungen Damen tragen lange weiße Kleider, welche die Knöchel nur manchmal den männlichen Blicken freigeben. Um die geschnürten Taillen haben sie sich Schärpen in den französischen Nationalfarben gebunden: [I]bleu, blanc, rouge,[/I] ihre Strohhüte sind mit Schleifen geschmückt. Die ausgelassenen Frauen und Männer bejubeln, was vor einem Jahr, am 14. Juli 1789, geschah – den Beginn der Französischen Revolution, den Sturm auf die Bastille in Paris, den Ruf nach Freiheit, Gleichheit, Brüderlichkeit. Was für Ideale – die gilt es zu feiern, auch in Hamburg, während das »glückliche Jahr« 1790 in Paris beim Föderationsfest auf dem Marsfeld zelebriert wird.

In der naturbelassenen Schönheit des Alsterufers – keine Prachthäuser, keine versailleschen Gärten – feiert die Gesellschaft sich und die Revolution und ist für kurze Weile fern der städtisch-ständischen Konventionen.
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Der deutsch-französische Minister

News in Französische Revolution & Napoleonische Epoche Noch keine Kommentare »
[b]
Deutschland war seine Heimat, Frankreich sein Schicksal, Weimar seine Welt: Das erstaunliche Leben des Karl Friedrich Reinhard, der für kurze Zeit sogar das Pariser Außenamt führte.[/b]

Ein deutsch-französischer Minister? [i]Pourquoi pas?![/i] Kann gewiss nicht schaden. Im Übrigen gab es ihn schon einmal. Zwar nicht ganz so, wie Präsident Nicolas Sarkozy ihn sich vielleicht vorstellt – aber doch als einen Mann, der in und zwischen beiden Landen lebte und Politik machte.
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Husarenritt in den Tod

News in Französische Revolution & Napoleonische Epoche 1 Kommentar »
Der vergebliche Krieg des preußischen Majors Ferdinand von Schill und seiner Freischärler gegen Napoleon.

[IMG]http://images.zeit.de/bilder/2009/34/wissen/70-ferdinand-von-schill/70-ferdinand-von-schill-artikel-410.jpg[/IMG]
Eine historische Zeichnung zeigt den Tod des preussischen Husarenoffiziers Ferdinand von Schill (1776-1809) in der Altstadt von Stralsund am 31. Mai 1809. Schill, der einen Volksaufstand gegen die napoleonischen Truppen organisieren wollte, war bei Kämpfen gegen holländische und dänische Truppen ums Leben gekommen.
© Kulturhistorisches Museum der Hansestadt Stralsund/ddp


Im Frühling und Sommer des Jahres 1809 gibt es für die Berliner nur ein Thema, und das heißt: Schill. Ferdinand von Schill ist mit seinem Regiment in das Königreich Westphalen eingedrungen, jenen Staat, den Napoleon zwei Jahre zuvor in Mittel- und Norddeutschland geschaffen hat und den sein Bruder Jérôme regiert. Eigenmächtig, ohne den Befehl seines Königs, Preußens Friedrich Wilhelm III., ist Schill losgezogen und hat begonnen, gegen Napoleon Krieg zu führen – angesichts der strikten Disziplin, die im preußischen Heer herrscht, für die Zeitgenossen ein schier ungeheuerlicher Vorgang! Was nur hat ihn zu seiner spektakulären Aktion bewogen?

Dass er ein begeisterter Soldat ist, steht außer Frage. Dennoch hat der Erfolg in seinem Leben lange auf sich warten lassen. Geboren am 6. Januar 1776 in Wilmsdorf bei Dresden als Sohn eines Offiziers, trat er mit 14 Jahren in das Dragonerregiment Ansbach-Bayreuth ein. 1793 wurde Schill zum Leutnant (Seconde-Lieutenant) befördert. Diesen Rang behielt er 13 Jahre lang: Noch 1806 nannte man ihn spöttisch den ältesten Leutnant der Armee.

Doch dann wendet sich das Blatt. Während der Schlacht bei Auerstedt 1806, da Preußen im Kampf gegen Napoleons Heer untergeht, wird Schill verwundet – er erhält einen Säbelhieb über den Kopf. Er schlägt sich nach Kolberg an der Ostseeküste durch, wo er Ende Oktober 1806 eintrifft. Hier, in der Festung, die nicht vor den Franzosen kapitulieren will, beginnt für ihn ein kometenhafter Aufstieg. Am 26. Dezember 1806 wird er zum Premierleutnant befördert, am 13. Februar 1807 zum Rittmeister, am 30. Juni zum Major.
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Marseillaise - Die Hymne aller Hymnen

News in Französische Revolution & Napoleonische Epoche 1 Kommentar »
Sie ist das Lied der Französischen Revolution, sie ist das Freiheitslied der ganzen Welt: Die Marseillaise. Ihren Dichter und Komponisten indes umgeben bis heute viele Rätsel und wunderliche Legenden.

Mit einer Pistole in der Faust streunt der Komponist durch Paris. Die Stadt kocht. Nicht wegen der Sommerhitze. Tagelang wurde scharf geschossen, zweitausend Menschen sind umgekommen. Seit dem 29. Juli 1830 ist Paris in den Händen der Aufständischen, der König flieht. Man singt, man sammelt für die Verwundeten, auch Hector Berlioz schließt sich einem Spontanchor an. Bald umdrängt eine begeisterte Menge die Sänger, sie ziehen in den ersten Stock eines Kurzwarengeschäfts nahe dem Louvre und stimmen aus dem Fenster ein Lied an, das von Frankreichs Herrschern seit Napoleon geächtet worden ist. »Schon bei den ersten Takten erstarrt das lärmende Gewimmel zu unseren Füßen und verstummt«, erinnert sich Berlioz. An die fünftausend Leute lauschen ergriffen der Marseillaise. In der vierten Strophe schreit Berlioz: »Verdammt noch mal, singt doch mit!« Was dann folgt, gleicht einer Explosion.
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"I wer enk nit verlass’n!"

News in Französische Revolution & Napoleonische Epoche Noch keine Kommentare »
Freiheitskämpfer? Gotteskrieger? Der Aufstand Andreas Hofers und seiner Tiroler gegen die Bayern und Napoleon 1809 bewegt bis heute.

Sein Name ist zum Mythos geworden. In zahllosen Büchern, Dramen und Liedern wird sein Leben und Schicksal erzählt und besungen, und noch heute verehrt ihn mancher Landsmann als den Übervater Tirols. Doch wer war Andreas Hofer wirklich? Ein Freiheitskämpfer? Ein konservativer Rebell? Eine bloße Figur auf dem Schachbrett der europäischen Politik, im Konflikt zwischen Napoleon und Habsburg? Sein Kampf gegen Bayern und dessen "Schutzmacht" Frankreich, der im Frühjahr 1809 in einen regelrechten Volksaufstand mündete, erinnert an den Guerillakrieg der Spanier, der zur selben Zeit Napoleons Truppen auf der Iberischen Halbinsel zermürbte – und trägt doch ganz eigene Züge.
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Forscher widerlegen Giftmordlegende Napoleons

News in Französische Revolution & Napoleonische Epoche 2 Kommentare »
Keiner möchte es wahrhaben, aber auch die Mächtigsten der Geschichte können einen glanzlosen, gewöhnlichen Tod sterben. Italienische Forscher haben jetzt das Ende Napoleons entzaubert: Kein Giftanschlag, sondern ein Tumor und eine Überdosis Brechmittel haben dem großen Feldherrn den Tod gebracht.
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Fragment aus Napoleon-Roman versteigert

News in Französische Revolution & Napoleonische Epoche Noch keine Kommentare »
24.000 Euro wert: "Clisson und Eugenie" blieb einziger literarischer Versuch des Feldherren und französischen Kaisers
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Skelette aus Zeit der Napoleonischen Kriege in Villach entdeckt

News in Französische Revolution & Napoleonische Epoche Noch keine Kommentare »
Massengrab bei Baggerarbeiten gefunden - sterbliche Überreste sollen bestattet werden
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Die Weiße Frau – Ein Gespenst macht Geschichte

News in Französische Revolution & Napoleonische Epoche 6 Kommentare »
Bevor Napoleon I. am 14. Mai 1812 auf seinem Feldzug nach Russland in Bayreuth abstieg, hatte er von Aschaffenburg einen Kurier vorausgeschickt. Seine Instruktion lautete: Der Kaiser wolle keinesfalls jene Gemächer bewohnen, in denen nachts die Weiße Frau zu erscheinen pflege. Napoleons Furcht vor dem Hohenzollerngespenst war wohl begründet.
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Napoleons Totenmaske: Verräterische Narbe

News in Französische Revolution & Napoleonische Epoche 3 Kommentare »
Eine im Pariser Invalidendom ausgestellte Totenmaske zeigt womöglich gar nicht das Antlitz des 1821 verstorbenen Kaisers Napoleon I., sondern die Gesichtszüge eines Bediensteten Bonapartes. Eine fehlende Narbe führte auf die Spur der Fälschung.
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Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 153

Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 154

Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 155

Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 157

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Napoleons Sieg-Säbel von Marengo erzielt 4,8 Millionen Euro

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Der Feldherr soll ihn im historischen Moment geschwungen haben - jetzt wurde sein letzter Säbel aus Privatbesitz versteigert. Mit dem Schmuckstück soll Napoleon die Wende in der Schlacht von Marengo herbeigeführt haben. Trotz Auktion wird er Frankreich nie verlassen dürfen.
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Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 153

Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 154

Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 155

Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 157

Deprecated: Function ereg_replace() is deprecated in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/inc/code.php on line 7

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Einstiges Exil wird attraktiver gemacht

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Italien lässt die napoleonischen Villen auf Elba restaurieren, um sie als "kaiserliche Residenzen" zu präsentieren
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(C) Daniel Oswald