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Margaret MacMillan: "Den Versailler Vertrag trifft keine Schuld"

News in Die Zeit zwischen den Weltkriegen 9 Kommentare »
[b]
Warum die Friedensordnung von 1919 besser war als ihr Ruf: Die britische Historikerin Margaret MacMillan über ihr Buch "Die Friedensmacher", das nun endlich auch auf Deutsch erschienen ist.
Interview: Christian Staas.[/b]

[b]DIE ZEIT:[/b] Der Versailler Vertrag gilt gemeinhin als Debakel. Die Siegermächte, heißt es, hätten nach dem Ersten Weltkrieg Rachebedürfnisse genährt und ihre Prinzipien verraten, statt Frieden zu stiften. Frau MacMillan, Sie wollen dieses Bild korrigieren. Also: Was haben die "Großen Vier" in Paris richtig gemacht?

Margaret MacMillan:[/b] Eines vorweg: Es war 1919 unmöglich, einen Frieden zu schließen, der alle zufriedenstellt. Gleichwohl haben US-Präsident Woodrow Wilson und die Premierminister von Frankreich, England und Italien Großes vollbracht. Sie haben Grenzen gezogen für etliche neue oder wiedererstehende Staaten wie Polen, die aus den zerfallenden Vielvölkerreichen hervorgingen – eine enorme Aufgabe! Und vor allem: Sie haben den Völkerbund geschaffen ...

[b]ZEIT:[/b] ... dem die USA selbst nicht beitraten und der bald bedeutungslos wurde ...

[b]MacMillan:[/b] ... der aber dennoch ein wichtiger Schritt war in Richtung internationaler Kooperation. Auch brachten die Siegermächte die ehemaligen deutschen Kolonien unter das Mandat des Bundes, was eine deutliche Verbesserung für die dortigen Bevölkerungen darstellte.

[b]ZEIT:[/b] [i]Die Friedensmacher[/i] heißt Ihre große Darstellung der Pariser Verhandlungen, die nun auch auf Deutsch erschienen ist. Der Titel dürfte manchen irritieren. Wurde denn wirklich Frieden gemacht oder nur neuem Unfrieden der Boden bereitet?
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Die Republik widersteht

News in Die Zeit zwischen den Weltkriegen Noch keine Kommentare »

1934 drohte Frankreich ein Putsch von rechts. Gleich mehrere faschistische Gruppen bekämpften die Demokratie. Durchsetzen aber konnten sie sich nicht.


[IMG]http://images.zeit.de/wissen/geschichte/2013-10/s62-paris/s62-paris-540x304.jpg[/IMG]
6. Februar 1934: Aufruhr auf dem Place de la Concorde in Paris.

"Nieder mit den Dieben!", skandieren die 300.000 Demonstranten, die am 6. Februar 1934 auf das Palais Bourbon, den Sitz der französischen Nationalversammlung im Zentrum von Paris, zumarschieren. Dort stellt an diesem Tag die linksliberale Regierung von Édouard Daladier die Vertrauensfrage. Die aufgebrachte Menge will Daladier aus dem Amt jagen. Gleich mehrere Korruptionsaffären haben das Land in den Monaten zuvor erschüttert. Nun bricht sich der aufgestaute Unmut über Bestechung und andere Skandale Bahn.
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Politik der Gewalt

News in Die Zeit zwischen den Weltkriegen Noch keine Kommentare »
[b]
Benito Mussolini war der erste faschistische Diktator Europas – seine Herrschaft beruhte auf Krieg und brutaler Unterdrückung. Dass sie bis heute verharmlost wird, ist ein Skandal. Von Aram Mattioli[/b]

Seit dem Ende des Kalten Krieges wird der Faschismus in Italien nicht mehr nur von rechtsextremen Spinnern verharmlost. Auch Minister, Abgeordnete und angesehene Intellektuelle reden ihn schön. Als Premierminister Silvio Berlusconi 2003 behauptete, dass die faschistische Diktatur "gutartig" gewesen sei und dass Benito Mussolini nie jemanden habe ermorden lassen, sondern die Antifaschisten auf Gefängnisinseln in den Urlaub geschickt hätte, verlieh er damit einer in Mitte-rechts-Kreisen weit verbreiteten Meinung Ausdruck. Jahrzehntelang war die politische Kultur der italienischen Republik antifaschistisch geprägt. Äußerungen wie die Berlusconis wirken vor diesem Hindergrund besonders skandalös – ganz davon abgesehen, dass die Legende von der "sanften Diktatur" längst widerlegt ist: Der "Duce" hat Italien in die größte Katastrophe seiner Geschichte geführt und ist verantwortlich für den gewaltsamen Tod von mindestens einer Million Menschen. Kaum ein seriöser Historiker würde dem heute noch widersprechen.
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Eine Schüssel Blut aus Almería

News in Die Zeit zwischen den Weltkriegen 2 Kommentare »

Bunkermuseum und Gedächtnislücken: Die andalusische Stadt gedenkt des deutschen Angriffs während des Spanischen Bürgerkriegs.


[IMG]http://images.zeit.de/wissen/geschichte/2012-08/s19-admiral-scheer/s19-admiral-scheer-540x304.jpg[/IMG]
Das deutsche Panzerschiff "Admiral Scheer" im Hafen von Gibraltar. Diese Aufnahme entstand um das Jahr 1936.

Beim steilen Abstieg unter die Stadt kann es ältere deutsche Besucher schon mal wie ein Blitz treffen. Erinnerungen an ihre Kindheit in den Bombennächten des Zweiten Weltkriegs überfallen sie dann. Denn Kellerluft schlägt ihnen entgegen, Fliegeralarm schrillt aus Sirenen, flackernde Notbeleuchtung simuliert Einschläge in die Nachbarhäuser.

Die jüngeren Touristen aus aller Welt, die Studenten und Schüler dagegen beeindruckt fürs Erste mehr, wie schnell sie Andalusiens Hitze entflohen sind. Der kühle, enge Gang, durch den sich die etwa 30-köpfige Gruppe in neun Meter Tiefe drängt, verläuft parallel zur Magistrale der im Sommer glühend heißen Hafenstadt Almería mit ihren 190.000 Einwohnern.

Das Tunnelsystem stammt aus der noch immer mehr verschütteten als bewältigten Vergangenheit des Spanischen Bürgerkriegs, der dem Zweiten Weltkrieg vorausging – als Hitlers Luftwaffe und Kriegsmarine im Bündnis mit dem Putschistengeneral Francisco Franco Spaniens Städte bombardierten. Um nicht hilflos ausgeliefert zu sein, trieben die Verteidiger der Republik in Almería ihre kilometerlangen Luftschutzstollen in die Erde.

Wer diese Männer und Frauen waren, wofür sie kämpften, darüber erfahren die Besucher hier allerdings so gut wie nichts. Die Stadt präsentiert ihre Bunkeranlage seltsam politikfern und vermarktet sie touristisch unter dem modisch vagen Titel Refugien – ein Raum für das Leben. Die Museumsführerin eilt, technische Details ratternd und schnatternd, durch die schier endlosen, gleichförmig ausbetonierten Gänge: »Einmalig in Europa« sei das 4,6 Kilometer lange Tunnelsystem, 34.144 der damals 50.000 Stadtbewohner bot es Schutz mit 30 Zentimeter dicken Betonwänden, einem Operationssaal und 67 Eingängen. Beim Bau einer Tiefgarage wurde es vor einigen Jahren »wiederentdeckt«. Gut ein Kilometer sei jetzt originalgetreu ausgebaut worden, »damit wir das nie vergessen«.

Aber was? Der Name Franco fällt nicht, kein Wort über Terror und Massenmorde, über die Erschießungen der Verteidiger und Tunnelbauer von Almería, als diese letzte, kleine Bastion der Republik 1939 fiel. Und Almería – das bombardierten »die Deutschen und die anderen«.
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Generalprobe für den Blitzkrieg

News in Die Zeit zwischen den Weltkriegen Noch keine Kommentare »
Schulfreunde wurden von Bomben zerfetzt, Nachbarn unter Trümmern begraben: Vor 75 Jahren zerstörte eine deutsche Fliegerstaffel Guernica. Der damals 14-jährige Luis Iriondo Aurtenetxea überlebte den Angriff nur durch einen Zufall. Doch über den Schrecken durfte er Jahrzehntelang nicht sprechen.
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Vom zweiten zum "Dritten Reich"

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Der Historiker Stephan Malinowski im Gespräch über die Feudalisierung des Bürgertums, die Krise des deutschen Adels und die Geburt des Führerkults aus dem Geist des Wilhelminismus.


[IMG]http://images.zeit.de/wissen/geschichte/2011-02/hindenburg-hitler/hindenburg-hitler-540x304.jpg[/IMG]
August 1933: Adolf Hitler und Reichspräsident Paul von von Hindenburg, der schon im Kaiserreich diente

ZEITGeschichte: Herr Malinowski, die Frage, welche Traditionslinien vom Kaiserreich zum Nationalsozialismus führen, ist in Deutschland jahrzehntelang heftig diskutiert worden. Zu welchen Ergebnissen ist die Geschichtswissenschaft gekommen? Gilt sie noch, die These vom deutschen Sonderweg?

Stephan Malinowski: Die Sonderweg-These ist seit Mitte der achtziger Jahre zermahlen worden in den Mühlen der empirischen Forschung. Vor allem Fritz Fischer hatte sie in den sechziger und siebziger Jahren vertreten. Seine Kernthese, die er 1978 unter dem Titel Bündnis der Eliten präsentierte, lautete, dass es vor dem Ersten und vor dem Zweiten Weltkrieg dieselben gesellschaftlichen Kreise gewesen seien, die Deutschland ins Verderben getrieben hätten. Sie hätten die gleichen Ziele, die gleichen ökonomischen Großprojekte verfolgt. Erst von den achtziger Jahren an aber wurden diese Zusammenhänge überhaupt empirisch erforscht. Es zeigte sich dabei, dass eine Kontinuität der Ziele leichter zu belegen ist als eine Kontinuität der Eliten, die sie verfolgten. Eines der wichtigsten deutschen Forschungsprojekte dazu war das von Jürgen Kocka zur Geschichte des europäischen Bürgertums. Es ergab, dass die Kontinuitäten der Machtstrukturen in fast allen europäischen Ländern größer waren als in Deutschland, wo es 1918 durch den verlorenen Weltkrieg zu einem enormen Bruch kam. Die These vom deutschen Sonderweg als Abweichung von einem – letztlich imaginären – europäischen Standardweg ist deshalb längst korrigiert worden. Auf dem diesjährigen Historikertag wurde sie nicht einmal erwähnt. Deutsche Geschichte besteht eben nicht einfach nur aus einem Bündel problematischer Traditionslinien.
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Geheime Flugstunden in Russland

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1925 übernahm die Reichswehr in der Sowjetunion eine Fliegerschule. Bis 1933 bauten hier Deutsche und Russen gemeinsam ihre Luftwaffen auf.


[IMG]http://images.zeit.de/wissen/geschichte/2010-07/s16-fliegerschule/s16-fliegerschule-540x304.jpg[/IMG]
Eine Militärmaschine aus den zwanziger Jahren

An einem Apriltag des Jahres 1928 steigt eine Gruppe von Offizieren der Reichswehr am Berliner Bahnhof Zoo in einen Zug nach Moskau. Unter ihnen ist Hans Arens, von Beruf Flieger. Ziel der Reise ist das Städtchen Lipezk, knapp 400 Kilometer südöstlich der sowjetischen Hauptstadt. Die Gruppe reist in Zivil, das Unternehmen ist geheim. Doch bei der Fahrt durch Polen bemerkt Arens, dass er und seine Kameraden unter Beobachtung stehen. Zwei Reisende geben laute Kommentare über die Reichswehr von sich und lassen erkennen, dass sie wissen, worum es geht: um die geheime Ausbildung deutscher Jagdflieger in Russland.
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Ich hatt' einen Kameraden: Capas Kriegsfoto - nur gestellt?

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Moment der Wahrheit und neue Vorwürfe: Was ist eigentlich noch echt am berühmten Foto "Loyalistischer Soldat im Moment seines Todes" von Robert Capa?
[img]http://pix.sueddeutsche.de/kultur/646/481120/capagr-1248013934.jpg[/img]
"Die Wahrheit ist eine Kategorie, die sich im gleichen Maße verändert, wie wir neue Kenntnisse erlangen‘‘, schreibt der mexikanische Schriftsteller Juan Villoro. Der Anlass dafür ist, dass der bisherige Wissensstand zu "Loyalistischer Soldat im Moment seines Todes"- dem legendären Foto des gleichsam legendären Kriegsfotografen Robert Capa aus dem Spanischen Bürgerkrieg (1936-1939) - um ein Detail erweitert worden ist. Die Tageszeitung El Periódico de Catalunya, die in Barcelona erscheint, ermittelte durch - wie sie schreibt - eigene Recherchen, wo das Foto geschossen wurde: vor den Toren eines kleinen, andalusischen Örtchens mit dem schönen Namen Espejo, der auf Deutsch "Spiegel" bedeutet und in der Provinz Córdoba liegt. Allerdings geht diese Neuigkeit, die El Periódico als Weltsensation in Szene setzte, auf José Manuel Susperregui zurück, einem spanischen Akademiker, der Espejo in seinem in diesem Sommer erschienenen Buch "Sombras de la fotografía" (Schatten der Fotografie) genannt hat.

Belegt wird dies nun durch einen Abgleich dieser und ähnlicher Capa-Fotos mit aktuellen Landschaftsaufnahmen aus Espejo. Sie beweisen, dass die schon öfter bezweifelte Annahme, Capas Foto sei im 50 Kilometer entfernten Cerro Muriano entstanden, auf einem kompletten Irrtum beruhen dürfte. Einerseits. Andererseits lassen sie auch die Zweifel an der Authentizität des Bildes ins Unermessliche wachsen. Die Debatte darum geht bereits auf das Jahr 1975 zurück, als Philip Knigthley den 1954 an der Front in Indochina umgekommenen Capa des Fakes bezichtigte. Seither ist die Diskussion um "Loyalistischer Soldat im Moment seines Todes" nicht abgerissen.
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Es rappelt in der Kiste: Negativ-Filmrollen von Robert Capa aufgetaucht

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… aber sonst tut sich nicht viel. Die neu aufgetauchten Fotos des berühmten Kriegsfotografen Robert Capa aus dem Spanischen Bürgerkrieg sind vor allem eines: noch nicht völlig aufgetaucht.

Jetzt schon genauso spektakulär wie die Motive, die wohl auf den Fotos zu sehen sein werden, ist die Geschichte der Negative dieser Fotos. Es ist die Geschichte einer Odyssee. Sie führt von Paris nach Marseille und schließlich nach Mexiko-Stadt, wo die Negative bei einem mexikanischen General und Diplomaten auftauchten, der unter Pancho Villa diente. Dauer dieser Weltreise: 68 Jahre. Und niemand wusste, dass sie überhaupt stattgefunden hatte.

Denn die mehr als 3000 Negative, von denen hier die Rede ist, galten als verschollen. Der Fotograf selber hielt sie für verschollen. Der Fotograf ist Robert Capa, der wohl berühmteste Kriegsfotograf der Geschichte.

Capa, der sein bis dahin entstandenes Werk 1939 in Paris zurückließ, weil er vor den Nazis fliehen musste, emigrierte in die USA und fotografierte später als Kriegsberichterstatter unter anderem die Landung amerikanischer Soldaten in der Normandie im Juni 1944. 1954 wurde er in Vietnam von einer Mine getötet.

Capa ist Urheber jenes 1936 entstandenen hochdramatischen Fotos aus dem spanischen Bürgerkrieg, das einen tödlich getroffenen Soldaten im Moment seines Zusammenbruchs zeigt. Das Bild des Milizionärs, das 1937 an der Front nahe Córdoba aufgenommen wurde, hat immer schon Diskussionen darüber ausgelöst, ob es sich tatsächlich um das dokumentarische Foto eines Opfers oder um eine nachgestellte Szene handelt. Bislang sind an die 500 Capa-Fotos aus diesem Bürgerkrieg dokumentiert.
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Ein halbes Jahr vor Hitler endet der Rechtsstaat

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Albert Grzesinski trägt Schwarz am 20. Juli 1932. Das ist Zufall: Er will an diesem Mittwoch dienstlich zu einer Beerdigung; ein verdienter Kriminalrat soll beigesetzt werden. Doch dann muss Berlins Polizeipräsident kurzfristig absagen.
Denn an eben diesem 20. Juli 1932 wird in Preußens Hauptstadt der Rechtsstaat zu Grabe getragen. Grzesinski, der seinen Posten als SPD-Politiker bekommen hat, erfährt um 11.20 Uhr, dass Reichspräsident Paul von Hindenburg über ganz Preußen den Ausnahmezustand verhängt hat. Die Reichswehr übernehme die Macht, teilt General Gerd von Rundstedt telefonisch mit. Sein Nachfolger werde der bisherige Polizeipräsident von Essen, Kurt Melcher, erfährt Albert Grzesinski noch - dann ist die Leitung tot. Überall im Polizeipräsidium am Alex ziehen Soldaten auf.
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Der Weg zur ersten Demokratie

News in Die Zeit zwischen den Weltkriegen Noch keine Kommentare »
In den Außenbezirken Berlins pulst heute vor genau 90 Jahren das Leben wie gewohnt, rattern die Straßenbahnen wie an jedem anderen Tag. Und auch in den Vierteln der Innenstadt herrscht auf den ersten Blick ganz normales geschäftiges Treiben; auf den Bürgersteigen wogen die Massen.


Dennoch ist die Unruhe zu spüren, die über der Reichshauptstadt liegt an jenem 8. November 1918. Am Vortag sind einzelne Züge mit revoltierenden Matrosen aus Kiel und anderen Soldaten im Lehrter Bahnhof angekommen; bald darauf wird der Eisenbahnfernverkehr unterbrochen, ebenso Telefone und Telegrafen. Immer öfter tauchen in der Innenstadt Polizisten zu Fuß und zu Pferde auf. Alle öffentlichen Gebäude und das Schloss werden von Wachen umstellt. Mehrfach zerstreuen berittene Einheiten Menschenansammlungen am östlichen Ende der Linden. Die Stimmung verschlechtert sich. Revolution liegt in der Luft
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Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 157

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Sensationeller Fund

News in Die Zeit zwischen den Weltkriegen Noch keine Kommentare »
Am 6. Mai 1937 ging das deutsche Luftschiff „Hindenburg“ während des Landeanflugs binnen Sekunden in Flammen auf und stürzte ab. Mehr als 80 Jahre nach der Katastrophe des Zeppelins fanden sich kürzlich 63 Originalteile des ehemaligen Bordservices wieder. Kaum zu glauben, doch die sorgfältige Verpackung ist wohl der Grund dafür, dass das kostbare Porzellan den Sturz aus über dreißig Metern unbeschadet überstand.
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Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 155

Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 157

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Hitler-Putsch: Heinrich Hoffmann kam zu spät

News in Die Zeit zwischen den Weltkriegen 8 Kommentare »
Am 9. November 1923 zieht Adolf Hitler an der Spitze von rund 2000 Bewaffneten durch München. Am Tag zuvor hat er gegen die Regierung geputscht. Doch seltsam: Von jenem dramatischen Ereignis scheint es kein einziges zweifelsfreies Foto zu geben. Hier erklärt der Geschäftsführende Redakteur von GEOEPOCHE, der Historiker Cay Rademacher, warum
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Vatikan öffnet Archive aus kritischer Ära

News in Die Zeit zwischen den Weltkriegen 5 Kommentare »
Pontifikat von Papst Pius XI. umfasste die Zeit vor dem Zweiten Weltkrieg - Quellen über die Rolle des Vatikans nun frei zugänglich
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Die deutsche Handelsflotte in den 1920er und 30er Jahren

News in Die Zeit zwischen den Weltkriegen Noch keine Kommentare »
Ein Internet-Projekt des Deutschen Schiffahrtsmuseums

In einem Projekt, dessen Ergebnisse das Deutsche Schiffahrtsmuseums im Internet unter der Adresse http:www.dsm.de/DBSchiff veröffentlicht, beschreiben Fachleute nun die technische Entwicklung der deutschen Handelsflotte in den 1920er und 1930er Jahren.

http://www.dsm.de/
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Vor 80 Jahren erklärt Mussolini den Faschismus zur neuen Staatsform Italiens

News in Die Zeit zwischen den Weltkriegen 4 Kommentare »
Italien im Januar 1925. Seit dem Marsch auf Rom im Oktober 1922, als König Viktor Emanuel III. Benito Mussolini mit der Regierungsbildung beauftragte, regiert der Faschismus im Land. Aber noch hat Mussolini die Macht nicht ganz in seinen Händen, auch wenn er bei öffentlichen Auftritten vom Volk wie ein Heilsbringer gefeiert wird.
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(C) Daniel Oswald