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Teotihuacán: "Große Mengen" Quecksilber unter Pyramide gefunden

News in Lateinamerika | Altamerikanische Kulturen Noch keine Kommentare »
[b]
In einem Gang unter dem Tempel der Gefiederten Schlange sind Archäologen auf Quecksilber gestoßen. Steht nun die Entdeckung eines Königsgrabs bevor?[/b]

Bei Grabungen tief unter dem "Tempel der Federschlange" in der altmexikanischen Stadt Teotihuacán sind Ausgräber auf flüssiges Quecksilber gestoßen. Von dem Metall seien "größere Mengen" vorhanden, heißt es in Medienberichten. Die Wissenschaftler deuten den Fund als Hinweis darauf, dass nun zum ersten Mal in dieser in vielerlei Hinsicht rätselhaften Stadt ein Königsgrab zum Vorschein kommen könnte.

Das Metall hatte für die einstigen Bewohner keinen praktischen Nutzen, sondern diente wohl ausschließlich rituellen Zwecken. Der glitzernde Stoff könnte eine Art Fluss ins Totenreich symbolisiert haben, so die Archäologen um Sergio Gómez.
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Sensationeller Fund in Mexiko: Tor zur "Unterwelt"

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[b]
Archäologen haben unter der Pyramide von Teotihuacán einen 138 Meter langen Tunnel in die Unterwelt entdeckt - und eine Schatzkammer. Nun erhoffen sie sich neue Erkenntnisse über die untergegangene Kultur.[/b]

Rund 50 Opfergaben und Kultgegenstände seien 1800 Jahre lang verschüttet gewesen, sagte Ausgrabungsleiter Sergio Gómez am Mittwoch bei der Präsentation der Schätze. Darunter fanden sich Edelsteine, Statuen, Riesenmuscheln Knochen von Raubkatzen und Weihrauchbehälter. "Für die Menschen von Teotihuacán symbolisierte der Tunnel den Eingang in die Unterwelt", sagte Gómez weiter. Wahrscheinlich bestatteten sie dort auch ihre Herrscher.
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Pinochets stille Berater

News in Lateinamerika | Altamerikanische Kulturen 6 Kommentare »

Chile zur Zeit der Militärdiktatur: Während Ebert- und Adenauer-Stiftung die Opposition unterstützten, kümmerte sich die CSU-nahe Hanns-Seidel-Stiftung sehr intensiv um das Regime. Von Jeanette Erazo Heufelder


[IMG]http://images.zeit.de/wissen/geschichte/2013-08/s14-pinochet-strauss/s14-pinochet-strauss-540x304.jpg[/IMG]
Der damalige CSU-Vorsitzende Franz Josef Strauss (links) wird am 18. November 1977 vom chilenischen Diktator Augusto Pinochet empfangen.

Die Diktatur währte anderthalb Jahrzehnte, über 3.000 Menschen wurden von dem Regime umgebracht, an die 30.000 verhaftet und gefoltert, Hunderttausende ins Exil getrieben.

Erst im Herbst vor 25 Jahren ging die Schreckenszeit zu Ende. Am 5. Oktober 1988 sollte ein Plebiszit die weitere Herrschaft von General Augusto Pinochet legitimieren. Überzeugt davon, dass die Chilenen die Segnungen der Diktatur begriffen hätten, stellte sie der 73-jährige Junta-Chef vor die Wahl: ich oder das Chaos. Vor der Volksabstimmung ließ er noch Renten aufstocken, den sozialen Wohnungsbau fördern und die Zölle für Fernseher senken. Trotzdem stimmte die Mehrheit der Chilenen bei überwältigender Wahlbeteiligung gegen ihn.

An die zum Zerreißen gespannte Stille jener Abstimmungsnacht erinnert sich Dieter Oberndörfer noch heute. Der langjährige Direktor des Freiburger Arnold-Bergstraesser-Instituts, der vor dem Plebiszit eine Meinungsumfrage betreut hatte, wartete an diesem Abend in der deutschen Botschaft in Santiago auf das Wahlergebnis. "Der Botschafter hatte Außenminister Genscher Pinochets Niederlage prognostiziert, ich einem Kabinettsmitglied. Trotz unserer Umfragedaten war uns beiden dann doch mulmig zumute. Dazu die Totenstille in Santiago und die sich widersprechenden Radiomeldungen der Regierung und der Christdemokratischen Partei Chiles über den Ausgang des Plebiszits."
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Mord auf Bestellung?

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Der Daimler-Konzern steht im Verdacht, sich zum Komplizen der argentinischen Militärjunta gemacht zu haben. Jetzt liegt der Fall beim Obersten Gerichtshof der USA. Fragen an die Menschenrechtsaktivistin Gaby Weber.


[IMG]http://images.zeit.de/wissen/geschichte/2013-01/s16-plaza-de-mayo/s16-plaza-de-mayo-540x304.jpg[/IMG]
Frauen und Mütter demonstrieren Mitte der 1980er Jahren in Argentinien. Sie machen auf Menschen aufmerksam, die während der Militärdiktatur verschleppt worden sind oder spurlos verschwanden.

DIE ZEIT: Frau Weber, Sie erheben schwere Vorwürfe. Mercedes-Benz Argentina soll während der Militärdiktatur zwischen 1976 und 1983 insgesamt 17 Betriebsaktivisten an den Geheimdienst ausgeliefert haben...

Gaby Weber: ...was einem Todesurteil gleichkam. Menschenrechtsorganisationen schätzen, dass unter Jorge Videla rund 30.000 Menschen »verschwanden«. Die meisten hat man nie gefunden. Nachdem die Entführten gefoltert wurden, warf man ihre Leichen aus Flugzeugen über dem Meer oder dem Rio de la Plata ab. Höchstwahrscheinlich erlitten auch 14 der verschleppten Mercedes-Mitarbeiter dieses Schicksal.

DIE ZEIT: Haben Sie mit den drei Überlebenden gesprochen?

Gaby Weber: Ich habe mit meinen Nachforschungen 1999 begonnen und seither mit allen Beteiligten, den Überlebenden und den Familien, Gespräche geführt. Einer der wichtigsten Zeugen ist Héctor Ratto. Am 12. August 1977 zitierte Juan Tasselkraut, der Produktionsleiter des Mercedes-Werks in Buenos Aires, ihn in sein Büro, wo zwei Polizisten auf Ratto warteten. Sie brachten ihn in eine Kaserne, eine Folterstätte der Militärs. Dort traf Ratto einige Kollegen aus dem Mercedes-Betriebsrat wieder, darunter Diego Núñez, der kurz nach ihm verhaftet worden war und der nie wieder auftauchte.
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Kollaps durch Klimaveränderung?

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[b]
Die Hochkultur der Maya brach vor etwa 1000 Jahren plötzlich zusammen. Bis heute ist unklar, warum. Jetzt bieten Klimaforscher eine Erklärung an.[/b]

Die Maya haben Schätze im Urwald Mittelamerikas hinterlassen: Pyramiden, Tempel, Observatorien, Bewässerungskanäle, Sportarenen und unzählige andere Bauten. Hieroglyphen berichten von Herrschern, Kriegen sowie Aufstieg und Fall einzelner Stadtstaaten.

Die Schätze dieser Kultur begeistern Wissenschaftler - und lassen sie rätseln. Vor etwa 1000 Jahren kollabierte das Reich der Maya plötzlich.

Wie konnte es passieren, dass eine so hoch entwickelte Zivilisation binnen weniger Jahrhunderte etwa 90 Prozent ihrer Städte aufgab und dem Verfall überließ? Umweltkatastrophen, Bürgerkrieg, Invasionen von außen oder der Raubbau an der Natur?
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Totenkult in Chile: Wie die Ureinwohner zu ihren Mumien kamen

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Vor 7000 Jahren begannen die Ureinwohner Chiles, ihre Toten aufwendig zu mumifizieren. Klimaveränderungen verursachten offenbar den Beginn und das Ende dieses Kultes.


Schon vor mehr als 7000 Jahren haben die ersten Menschen ihre Toten als Mumien begraben; es war das Volk der Chinchorro, die im heutigen Chile lebten. Warum diese einfachen Nomaden plötzlich begannen, ihre Toten aufwendig zu mumifizieren, hat ein internationales Forscherteam aufgeklärt.

[IMG]http://polpix.sueddeutsche.com/bild/1.1442276.1345099322/560x315/mumie-atacamawueste.jpg[/IMG]
Eine Mumie aus der Atacama-Wüste im Norden Chiles. (© dpa)

Ein günstiges Klima schuf vor rund 7000 Jahren in Küstennähe viele Quellen und Wasserläufe. Die Chinchorro wurden sesshafter und ihre Bevölkerung wuchs stark an. Gleichzeitig sorgte die trockene Luft der nahen Atacamawüste dafür, dass Leichname nicht verwesten, sondern vertrockneten. Die Ureinwohner hatten ihre Toten zunächst nur in flachen Gruben bestattet. Durch Wind und Erosion seien diese häufig wieder an die Oberfläche gelangt, so die Forscher.
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Erbgutanalysen widerlegen Amerikas Besiedlungsgeschichte

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[b]
Wer bevölkerte als erstes die amerikanischen Kontinente? DNA-Untersuchungen Hunderttausender zeigen nun: In drei Wellen kamen Menschen vor 14.000 Jahren in die Neue Welt.[/b]

Die Besiedelung Amerikas ist eindeutig das am stärksten umstrittene Kapitel der Geschichte menschlicher Wanderbewegungen. Noch immer – und trotz Jahrzehnten intensiver Forschung – ist nicht klar, wer wann und wie als Erster seinen Fuß auf den Doppelkontinent setzte. Jetzt liefern gleich zwei aktuelle Studien zentrale, neue Erkenntnisse: Ein großes Wissenschaftlerteam um den Genetiker David Reich von der Harvard Medical School in Boston sorgte für den ersten umfassenden Genvergleich heutiger Ureinwohner, und Forscher um Dennis Jenkins von der University of Oregon in Eugene wiesen eindeutig nach, dass statt einer mindestens zwei Kulturen vor rund 14.000 Jahren Nordamerika bewohnten.

Laut den Untersuchungen von Reich und Kollegen, die aus der DNA von insgesamt 52 Gruppen amerikanischer Ureinwohner und 17 sibirischer Ethnien einen Stammbaum errechneten, drangen die eiszeitlichen Besiedler in mindestens drei Wellen von Asien ausgehend auf den Kontinent vor: Bei der ursprünglichsten und mitgliederstärksten Gruppe der "First Americans" lassen sich die genetischen Spuren einer schnellen Südexpansion erkennen; ihre Vertreter finden sich heute in sämtlichen Teilen Nord- und Südamerikas.
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Schon die Maya hatten Stadtwerke

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[b]
In Tikal haben Archäologen eine komplexe Anlage ausgegraben, mit der die Bewohner der alten Maya-Stadt ganzjährig Regenwasser verteilen konnten. Das 1700 Jahre alte System zur Wasserversorgung zeugt von enormer Ingenieurskunst.[/b]

In der Hitze Mittelamerikas musste das Volk der Maya das zur Verfügung stehende Wasser effizient nutzen, um bestehen zu können. Bei Ausgrabungen in Guatemala haben Archäologen in der Stadt Tikal nun ein ausgeklügeltes Wasserleitsystem entdeckt, das die Maya vor etwa 1750 Jahren errichtet haben.

Das Team um Vernon Scarborough von der University of Cincinnati beschreibt im Fachmagazin Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (online) ein großes System aus Dämmen, Reservoirs und Schleusen, das sie Palastdamm nennen. Damit konnten die Bewohner von Tikal ganzjährig Regenwasser auffangen und verteilen. Die Speicherung sei nötig gewesen, da sich dort Regen- und Trockenzeit abwechseln.

Die Autoren beschreiben zudem eine einfache aber wirkungsvolle Filteranlage. Demnach reinigten die Stadtbewohner ihr Trinkwasser mit Sandschichten an den Zuflüssen der Staubecken. In unmittelbarer Nähe des Reservoirs konnten die Forscher keinen Sand finden, was sie zu der Annahme bringt, dass die Maya weite Strecken zurücklegen mussten, um diesen zu beschaffen.
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Mythos Weltuntergang - Die Wahrheit über den Maya-Kalender

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[b]
Am 21. Dezember 2012 geht die Welt unter - das behaupten selbsternannte Propheten, die sich auf den Maya-Kalender berufen. Doch was steht wirklich in dem Dokument? Wissenschaftler haben den Mythos entzaubert.
[/b]
Angeblich, so behaupten selbsternannte Experten und besorgte Bürger, geht am 21. Dezember die Welt unter. Wird der Supervulkan unter dem amerikanischen Yellowstone-Nationalpark ausbrechen? Kommt es im Zentrum der Milchstraße zu einem erhöhten Auftreten von Gammastrahlen? Kehrt sich das Magnetfeld der Erde um? Auf Webseiten gibt es schon heute Survival-Kits.

Und das alles wegen der Maya. Wer auch immer das Ende der Welt erwartet, bezieht sich auf deren angebliche Prophezeiungen. In der Tat weist die Inschrifttafel eines Sarkophags in der alten Maya-Stadt Tortuguero auf ein Ereignis im Jahr 2012. Und am 21. Dezember 2012 endet ein Zyklus im Kalender der Maya.

Weltweit gibt es eine Handvoll Koryphäen der Maya-Forschung, eine davon in Deutschland. Wenn jemand Sinn, Syntax und Mythologie des Kalenders und seiner Aussagen zum Jahr 2012 deuten kann, dann Nikolai Grube von der Universität Bonn.
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Archäologen heben den Palast des mythischen Königs Naymlap

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Er soll noch vor den Inka ein goldstrotzendes Reich errichtet haben: Ein peruanischer Archäologe will auf den Tempelbau des legendären Sican-Königs Naymlap gestoßen sein.



[IMG]http://images.zeit.de/wissen/geschichte/2011-10/peru-lambayeque/peru-lambayeque-540x304.jpg[/IMG]
Erst kürzlich entdeckten Archäologen des Museo Brüning diesen Brustschmuck in Peru. Er gehörte womöglich einem hohen Vertreter der Lambayeque-Kultur.

Er kam übers Meer in prachtvollen Booten. Er war hochgewachsen, kostbar gekleidet und trug einen Kopfschmuck aus blinkendem Edelmetall und schillernden Vogelfedern. Seine Frau kam mit ihm und viele Konkubinen. Auch Gefolgsleute und Krieger waren bei ihm, Diener bestreuten seinen Weg mit Muschelpulver. Sein Name war Naymlap.
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Mayastraße lag 1400 Jahre unter Vulkanasche verborgen

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Ein gewaltiger Vulkanausbruch erschütterte um 630 n. Chr. das Gebiet um Ceren im heutigen El Salvador. Der Loma Caldera spuckte große Mengen Asche, die sich bis zu sieben Meter hoch um den Feuerberg legte – und eine ganze Mayasiedlung unter sich begrub. Seit 1978 graben Archäologen in dem "Pompeji der Neuen Welt" und stießen nun erstmals auch auf eine weiße Mayastraße aus dem 7. Jahrhundert n. Chr. - die erste bekannte Trasse dieser Art überhaupt in der Region.

Der 1,8 Meter breite Weg hatte ehemals auf einer Länge von etwa 45 Metern verschiedene Gebäude der Siedlung miteinander verbunden. Der Straßenbelag besteht aus weißer, gestampfter Vulkanasche. "Bis zum Zeitpunkt unserer Entdeckung waren derartige Straßen nur aus Yukatan bekannt", so der Archäologe Payson Sheets von der University of Colorado in Boulder.
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Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 154

Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 155

Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 157

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Neue Scharrbilder in Peru entdeckt

News in Lateinamerika | Altamerikanische Kulturen 1 Kommentar »
[b]
Die riesigen Geoglyphen in der Wüste nahe der peruanischen Stadt Nasca sind weltberühmt. Nun haben Forscher in der Region weitere Linien und Hügelanlagen gefunden.[/b]

Japanische Wissenschaftler haben in der Wüste rund um die peruanische Stadt Nasca weitere Scharrbilder aufgespürt. Sie fanden insgesamt 138 weitere Hügel und Linien. Die Bedeutung dieser Geoglyphen, die nur aus der Luft zu erkennen sind, ist rätselhaft. Viele von ihnen stellen Menschen und vor allem Tiere dar. Zum Teil sind es aber auch nur bis zu 20 Kilometer lange, schnurgerade Linien.
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Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 153

Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 154

Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 155

Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 157

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Taucher bergen 10.000 Jahre altes Skelett

News in Lateinamerika | Altamerikanische Kulturen 5 Kommentare »
Zehn Jahrtausende hat der Junge von Chan Hol in seinem nassen Grab gelegen. Jetzt haben Forscher sein Skelett aus einer überfluteten Höhle in Mexiko geborgen - es ist eines der ältesten, die in Amerika gefunden wurden. Es zeigt, dass die Besiedlung des Kontinents wohl anders ablief als gedacht.
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Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 154

Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 155

Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 157

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Sie wollen die Wahrheit nicht wissen

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[b]
Das Schicksal der »gestohlenen Kinder« und der Fall Noble: Wie die Vergangenheit Argentiniens alte Eliten einholt.

Als Ernestina Noble de Herrera 1976 zwei Säuglinge adoptierte, war der genetische Fingerabdruck noch nicht erfunden. Die argentinische Verlegerin ahnte nicht, dass Gerichtsmediziner einige Jahre später mit nur einem Tropfen Blut feststellen könnten, zu welcher Familie ein Kind gehört. Auch wenn die Eltern ermordet wurden und niemand weiß, wo ihre Leichen liegen. Noble nannte die Kinder, ihre künftigen Erben, Marcela und Felipe.

Wenige Monate vor der Adoption hatte eine Militärjunta unter General Jorge Rafael Videla die Macht an sich gerissen. Ernestina Noble de Herrera war die mächtigste Frau im Land und das Flaggschiff ihres Konzerns, die Tageszeitung Clarín, dem Diktator wohlgesinnt. Am 25. März 1976, dem Tag nach dem Putsch, titelte Clarín: »Völlige Normalität. Die Streitkräfte regieren.«

Etwa 30.000 Menschen ließ das Regime in Argentinien zwischen 1976 und 1983 foltern und »verschwinden«. Die Opfer wurden anonym verscharrt oder betäubt aus Flugzeugen über dem Río de la Plata abgeworfen. Für schwangere Häftlinge gab es in den geheimen Foltercamps Kreißsäle, viele der Frauen bekamen ihre Kinder angekettet und mit verbundenen Augen. Die Kinder wurden verkauft, verschenkt oder an Adoptiveltern vermittelt.
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Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 154

Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 155

Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 157

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Fotos von Verschwundenen

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Während der Militärdiktatur in Argentinien von 1976 bis 1983 verschwanden fast 30.000 Menschen spurlos. Der Fotograf Gustavo Germano gehört zu den Opfern des Staatsterrors. Er verlor seinen ältesten Bruder. Mit seiner Fotoserie zeigt er auf eindrückliche Weise, was mit einer Familie geschieht, aus deren Mitte plötzlich ein Mensch gerissen wird. Germano hat Familienfotos aus den Siebziger Jahren nachfotografiert mit den Menschen, die die Militärdiktatur überlebt haben. Manchmal fehlt ein Familienmitglied, manchmal gleich mehrere.
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Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 154

Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 155

Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 157

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Im Grab des geheimnisvollen Herrschers

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[n]
1600 Jahre lang lag der Tote unberührt in dem Erdloch: Archäologen haben in Guatemala die Grabkammer eines Maya-Herrschers entdeckt. Die Ruhestätte enthält Knochen von sechs Kindern, die dem König in den Tod folgten, sie ist voller Schätze und Rätsel - und erstaunlich unversehrt.[/b]

El Zotz ist ein ungemütlicher Ort. Durch den sumpfigen Urwald in der Umgebung schleichen Jaguare und Pumas, gelegentlich kommt ein Beulenkrokodil vorbei. Bricht die Dämmerung herein, schwärmen Tausende Fledermäuse aus, die in den nahen Klippen und in einer Höhle der Maya-Pyramide "El Diablo" leben. Der 45 Meter hohe Bau heißt wie der Teufel, weil seine Wände so steil sind, dass man sie nur unter Lebensgefahr besteigen kann. So viele Fledermäuse verdunkeln am Abend den Himmel, dass die guatemaltekische Ruinenstadt nach ihnen, den "Zotz", benannt wurde.
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Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 153

Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 154

Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 155

Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 157

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Zweimal besiedelt

News in Lateinamerika | Altamerikanische Kulturen 1 Kommentar »
[b]Die Ahnen der heutigen amerikanischen Ureinwohner waren möglicherweise nicht die ersten Siedler auf dem Kontinent. Das zeigt eine Untersuchung von Schädeln aus der Neuen Welt und Asien. [/b]

Die ersten Menschen, die die "Neue Welt" besiedelt haben, sind möglicherweise nicht die Vorfahren der heute noch lebenden Ureinwohner Amerikas. Vielmehr könnte der Kontinent zweimal besiedelt worden sein. Zu diesem Schluss kommen Wissenschaftler der Universität Tübingen, der chilenischen Universidad Católica del Norte und der Universidade de Sao Paulo in Brasilien aufgrund ihrer Studie von Menschenschädeln.
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Amerika von zwei Ureinwohnergruppen besiedelt

News in Lateinamerika | Altamerikanische Kulturen 17 Kommentare »
"Den" Ureinwohner Amerikas gibt es nicht - der Kontinent soll stattdessen von zwei verschiedenen Menschengruppen im zeitlichen Abstand und unabhängig voneinander besiedelt worden sein.

Das belegt ein Team von Wissenschaftlern um die Tübinger Paläoanthropologin Katerina Harvati in einer Studie, die im Online- Journal "PLoS ONE" veröffentlicht ist. Mit dieser Analyse seien zum ersten Mal verschiedene Szenarien der Besiedelung formal geprüft worden, teilte die Universität Tübingen mit.
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ARGENTINIEN: Tagebuch des Terrors

News in Lateinamerika | Altamerikanische Kulturen 1 Kommentar »
Die Wahrheit kann bisweilen ziemlich grausam, ja schmerzvoll sein. Was die damals 26-jährige Victoria Donda am 24. Juli 2003 erfuhr, hat sie bis heute nicht verarbeitet. Es war ein Schock, ein Albtraum. Von einen Tag auf den anderen änderte sich alles. Zwar war die Argentinierin dieselbe wie eh und je, dennoch war ihre bisherige Identität ausgelöscht.
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Utopia im Urwald

News in Lateinamerika | Altamerikanische Kulturen 1 Kommentar »
Befreite Theologie lange vor der Befreiungstheologie: Auf den Spuren der Jesuiten in Paraguay, die dort 1609 ihr einzigartiges Missionswerk begannen.

Wo die Musik spielt im Armenhaus Südamerikas, da ist Chávez nicht weit. An diesem Sonnabend warten die Indianer von Armonia im Nordwesten Paraguays auf ihn. 40 Familien aus dem Chaco haben sich in der Siedlung nahe der bolivianischen und der argentinischen Grenze zusammengeschlossen. Sie kamen aus den Wäldern und schlagen sich inzwischen mit Tagelohn, Kleintierhaltung und Feldarbeit durch. Kontakte mit der Außenwelt haben sie nicht gesucht. Bis sie den Brief schrieben, den Chávez las.

Schüchtern stehen sie da, der Lehrer Oswaldo vorweg, die Schulkinder hinter ihm. Oswaldo ist zugleich der Kazike von Armonia, also der »Häuptling«. Doch kaum einer versteht sich so gut darauf, Urbevölkerung und Armen die Scheu zu nehmen, wie Chávez – Favio Chávez, 33-jähriger Umweltingenieur und Musiker aus Leidenschaft.

Er schüttelt die Hände, seine Begleiter ziehen die Plane vom Pick-up. Dort oben ist ein kleines Orchester ohne Musiker versammelt. Zupf- und Streichinstrumente lugen aus Kisten und Kartons. Schon steht Chávez auf der Ladefläche und schwingt eine der Gitarren. Ihretwegen haben die Indianer an das von Paraguay aus gestartete Musikprojekt Sonidos de la Tierra (Klänge der Erde) geschrieben. Vier Gitarren und dazu Lernhilfen wünschte Oswaldo für seine besten Musikschüler. Das sind drei Mädchen im Teenageralter und ein kleiner Junge, der sein Glück und die Gitarre kaum fassen kann.

Der Pulk zieht in den Schulraum. Chávez klemmt sich in eine Bank und stimmt die Gitarren. Bernarda, die 39-jährige Ordensschwester aus seinem Team, erklärt dem Schulleiter, was durch seine Unterschrift rechtsgültig wird: dass die Instrumente im Gemeindebesitz bleiben und den Kindern nicht mitgegeben werden dürfen, dass eine Lehrerin aus der Stadt jede Woche für vier Stunden kommen wird, dass der Kazike seine Schüler zum Üben anhalten muss.

Chávez beginnt zu spielen, reicht auch Oswaldo eine Gitarre. Plötzlich ist alle Scheu verflogen. Im Duett spielen der Ingenieur aus der fernen Hauptstadt Asunción und der Indianer aus dem Chaco Lautenmusik von Johann Sebastian Bach.

Chávez und Oswaldo haben sich an diesem Tag zum ersten Mal gesehen – und doch sind beide Wiedergänger einer gemeinsamen Geschichte, die vor genau 400 Jahren begann. Damals waren es jesuitische Padres, die sich vom Jahre 1609 an aus Asunción in die Urwälder Paraguays und die benachbarten Regionen der heutigen Staaten Brasilien, Bolivien, Argentinien und Uruguay aufmachten.
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Chile: Späte Ehrung für Victor Jara

News in Lateinamerika | Altamerikanische Kulturen 1 Kommentar »

Pinochets Schergen folterten und erschossen ihn. 36 Jahre nach seinem Tod, geben die Chilenen dem Volks- und Protestsänger Victor Jara ein würdiges Begräbnis.


[IMG]http://images.zeit.de/wissen/geschichte/2009-12/jara2/jara2-540x304.jpg[/IMG]
In Santiago de Chile: 36 Jahre nach seiner Ermordung durch die Schergen Pinochets wird Folkssänger Victor Jara beigesetzt

Seit Donnerstagabend standen Chilenen Schlange vor dem Victor-Jara-Kulturzentrum in der Hauptstadt Santiago. Sie erwiesen der Stimme ihres Landes die letzte Ehre - einer Stimme, die 1973 verstummte, wenige Tage nach dem Putsch, der das Land in die Diktatur stürzte. Victor Jara wurde, wie Tausende andere Chilenen, am 11. September 1973 verhaftet. Fünf Tage später war er tot.
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»Lust auf Weltuntergang«

News in Lateinamerika | Altamerikanische Kulturen 42 Kommentare »
[b]Im November kommt ein neuer Katastrophenfilm von Roland Emmerich ins Kino. Diesmal soll die Erde im Jahr 2012 untergehen – sagen angeblich die alten Maya.[/b]

DIE ZEIT: Dem Kalender der Maya zufolge geht am 21.12.2012 angeblich die Welt unter. Sie entziffern die Schrift dieser Kultur. Müssen wir uns fürchten?

Nikolai Grube: Nein, denn diese Prophezeiung gibt es nicht, weder im Maya-Kalender noch an irgendeiner Stelle der Hieroglyphen-Inschriften.
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Erste Maiszüchtung vor 8700 Jahren

News in Lateinamerika | Altamerikanische Kulturen Noch keine Kommentare »
Die Frage, woher das Grundnahrungsmittel Mais stammt, war lange Zeit ungelöst. Archäologen sind dem Korn nun in Mittelamerika auf die Spur gekommen: Es wurde bereits vor 8.700 Jahren in Mexiko gezüchtet und stammt von einer wilden Grasart ab. Dies zeigt, dass die prähistorischen mittelamerikanischen Kulturen bereits 1.200 Jahre früher als bislang angenommen Mais kultivierten.
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Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 153

Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 154

Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 155

Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 157

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Wie der Schokotrunk nach Nordamerika kam

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Vor tausend Jahren wurde im heutigen US-Bundesstaat New Mexico Kakao getrunken. Das Genussmittel stammte Anbaugebieten, die mindestens 2.000 Kilometer entfernt liegen. Das folgern Wissenschaftler aus dem Fund von Kakaorückständen in alten Trinkgefäßen aus dem Chaco Canyon in New Mexico. Der Fund liefert Hinweise auf die rituelle Bedeutung der bemalten Tonkrüge und einen weiteren Beleg für ausgedehnte mittelamerikanische Handelsrouten.
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Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 153

Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 154

Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 155

Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 157

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Nazca-Linien in Peru beschädigt

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Starker Regen hat Teile der berühmten Nazca-Linien in Peru beschädigt, wie ein Archäologe am Montag berichtete. Die riesigen und nur aus der Luft ganz zu erkennenden Scharrbilder sind eine der Haupttouristenattraktionen Perus. Sie wurden vor rund 2.000 Jahren in den Boden der Wüste gegraben.
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(C) Daniel Oswald