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Archäologen finden Beweise für legendäre Flut in China

News in Indien | Ferner Osten 2 Kommentare »
[b]
Eine Legende berichtet von einer gewaltigen Überschwemmung, die China vor 4000 Jahren heimsuchte. Nun wird klar: An dem Gründungsmythos der Kaiserzeit ist etwas dran.[/b]
Von Christoph Behrens

Am Oberlauf des Gelben Flusses gab es vor etwa 3900 Jahren eine gewaltige Überschwemmung, die zeitlich den Beginn der ersten Kaiserdynastie in China markieren könnte. Es handelte sich vermutlich um eine der verheerendsten Fluten, die der moderne Mensch je erlebt hat. Zu diesem Ergebnis kommen Forscher um den Archäologen Qinglong Wu von der Peking University im Fachblatt Science.

Bereits die ersten schriftlichen Quellen Chinas berichten von einer Überschwemmung, die mehrere Jahre angedauert haben soll. Den Überlieferungen zufolge zähmte erst der legendäre Herrscher Yu der Große die Fluten, indem er geordnete Kanäle für das Wasser anlegen ließ. Yu wurde dank seiner Verve zum Begründer der ersten Kaiserdynastie Xia, mithin des chinesischen Zentralstaats. Doch bislang fehlten schlagende Beweise für die Naturkatastrophe, manche sahen darin eher eine frühe Propaganda des Kaisertums.
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Forscher stoßen auf riesige Stadt bei Angkor Wat

News in Indien | Ferner Osten 1 Kommentar »
[b]
Archäologen haben Reste einer großen Siedlung bei der berühmten Tempelanlage im Dschungel entdeckt. Es handelt sich wohl um die größte Metropole des 12. Jahrhunderts.[/b]

In der Nähe der Tempelanlage Angkor Wat in Kambodscha haben Archäologen riesige mittelalterliche Siedlungsreste entdeckt. Mithilfe spezieller Lasermessungen (Lidar) aus der Luft konnten sie Strukturen unter bewaldeten Böden erkennen. Experten zufolge handelt es sich um die aufwendigste archäologische Studie aus der Luft, die jemals gemacht wurde.
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Als der Platz des Himmlischen Friedens zur Hölle wurde

News in Indien | Ferner Osten Noch keine Kommentare »
[b]
Mitte Mai 1989 treten Hunderttausende Pekinger Studenten auf dem Platz des Himmlischen Friedens in einen Hungerstreik. Sie demonstrieren für ein demokratischeres China.[/b]

In der Nacht zum 4. Juni 1989 schlägt das Militär in Peking zu: Nach sieben Wochen friedlicher Studentenproteste für demokratische Reformen lässt die Armee Panzer auf den Platz des Himmlischen Friedens rollen und das Feuer eröffnen. Auch 25 Jahre nach dem Massaker auf dem Tiananmen ist unklar, wie viele Menschen starben. Die Regierung hält die Zahlen unter Verschluss, Menschenrechtsorganisationen gehen von Hunderten Opfern aus. Noch heute ist keine Diskussion über die Ereignisse erlaubt. Wer darüber spricht, wird verhaftet oder unter Hausarrest gestellt.
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Chinas Enttäuschung als Siegermacht

News in Indien | Ferner Osten 2 Kommentare »
[b]
Sich öffnen und mit Japan abrechnen: Dass Chinas Erwartungen an die Friedensverhandlungen von Versailles 1919 enttäuscht wurden, besiegelte den Weg in den Kommunismus. Von Niklas Leverenz.[/b]

Wellington Koo war das Küken in der Runde der überwiegend älteren Herren, die ab dem 18. Januar 1919 in Versailles die Friedensverhandlungen nach dem Ersten Weltkrieg führten. Gerade mal 30 Jahre alt war er, aber an der Columbia University in New York promoviert und seit 1915 chinesischer Gesandter in den USA.

Koo war einer der besten internationalen Politiker Chinas und ein typischer Vertreter seiner Generation. Ab 1895 schnellte die Zahl junger Chinesen, die im Ausland studierten, steil nach oben. Das Land, welches jahrhundertelang sich selbst genügt hatte, durchströmte ein internationaler, am Westen orientierter Geist. 1901 wurde erstmals ein Außenministerium gegründet, eine Forderung der Siegermächte nach Niederschlagung des sogenannten Boxeraufstandes in den Jahren 1900 und 1901.

Als Vertreter Chinas forderte Koo in den Versailler Verhandlungen insbesondere die Rückgabe des deutschen Pachtgebiets Tsingtau (damals Kiautschou).
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Schlittenfahren zur Verbotenen Stadt

News in Indien | Ferner Osten 2 Kommentare »
[b]
Chinesische Arbeiter haben Felsbrocken auf Eisbahnen ins Peking des 15. und 16. Jahrhunderts gebracht. Dabei haben sie einen Trick genutzt, den man vom Curling kennt. [/b]

Goldglänzende Dächer auf einem Heer aus roten Säulen. Breite Treppenstufen, die zu imposanten Prachtbauten emporragen. Eine Armada aus Toren, Pavillons und Palästen – die Verbotene Stadt in Peking trumpft auf mit Prunk. Bis vor hundert Jahren durften ausschließlich Adlige das Kaiserviertel betreten. Normalsterbliche hatten zunächst nur Zugang, um das architektonische Meisterwerk zu bauen. Dafür mussten sie unter anderem riesige Felsbrocken für die Fundamente herbeischleppen, auf denen die Paläste heute noch thronen.

Wie die Arbeiter das bewerkstelligt haben, ist umstritten.
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Die Frauen vom Ho-Chi-Minh-Pfad

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Am Steuer von Militärlastern versorgten Frauen im Vietnamkrieg seit 1968 Vietkong-Kämpfer und Soldaten an der Front. Ihr Einsatz war fast vergessen.


[IMG]http://images.zeit.de/wissen/geschichte/2012-07/bg-hanoi-frauen/web_tran_thi_dinh-540x304.jpg[/IMG]
Tranh Thi Dinh arbeitete seit 1968 auf dem Ho-Chi-Minh-Pfad. Die Aufnahme entstand in der Provinz Nghe An.

Lange Zeit erzählte man sich von den 42 Vietnamesinnen von der Front nur wie von einer Legende. Zwischen 1967 und 1968 übernahmen sie eine extrem gefährliche Mission in den Wirren des Vietnamkriegs. Mit Militärlastern transportierten sie Waffen, Munition und Verpflegung für die Guerilla-Kämpfer des Vietkong und die Soldaten der Nordvietnamesischen Volksarmee in den Süden. In der Gegenrichtung brachten die Frauen Verwundete aus dem Kampfgebiet Richtung Norden in Sicherheit – nur mit Notbeleuchtung an ihren Lkw, um von den US-Bombern nicht entdeckt zu werden.

Ihr Weg führte durch das verzweigte Netz aus Straßen und Wegen des Ho-Chi-Minh-Pfades, zum Teil durch entlaubtes Gebiet, verseucht durch das Gift "Agent Orange", zum Teil durch die Nachbarländer Laos und Kambodscha.
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36 Millionen Tote

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Yang Jishengs Buch über die große Hungerkatastrophe unter Mao wird bereits mit dem "Archipel Gulag" verglichen. 2008 in Hongkong erschienen, in der Volksrepublik verboten, erscheint das Monumentalwerk jetzt auf Deutsch und in anderen westlichen Sprachen. Unsere Korrespondentin sprach mit dem Autor.


[IMG]http://images.zeit.de/wissen/geschichte/2012-07/s17-mao/s17-mao-540x304.jpg[/IMG]
1958: Während der Zeit des "Großen Sprungs" produzierten unzählige Chinesen Stahl in selbstgebauten Hochöfen hinter ihren Häusern.

DIE ZEIT: Herr Yang, während der Hungersnot, die Ende der fünfziger Jahre durch Maos »Großen Sprung« ausgelöst wurde, starben Millionen. Dennoch gab es, wie Sie schreiben, »kein Mitgefühl, keine Trauer, keine Tränen... Millionen von Menschen sind einfach so, apathisch und ohne einen Laut, verschwunden.« Wie konnte das geschehen?

Yang Jisheng: Es starben einfach zu viele. Die Menschen waren wie betäubt, sie hatten keine Kraft mehr, um zu trauern. In vielen Dörfern starben bis zu drei Viertel der Bewohner. Und diejenigen, die nicht starben, siechten vor sich hin, waren halb tot. Manche hielten es nicht mehr aus und aßen Menschenfleisch. Andere versuchten, den Tod ihrer Verwandten zu verheimlichen. Sie versteckten die Leichen und taten alles, um weiter die Lebensmittelrationen zu bekommen.
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DIE ZEIT: Sie schreiben, in jenen Jahren »gab es keinen Krieg. Keine Krankheiten. Das Wetter war ziemlich normal.« Wie konnte es zu so einer gewaltigen Hungersnot kommen?
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Feuer und Papier

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[b]
Ich verehrte Mao – und wurde sein Opfer. Bis heute blickt China den Schrecken der Kulturrevolution nicht offen ins Auge.[/b]

Ich habe einige der wichtigsten Ereignisse der jüngeren Geschichte Chinas miterlebt: den Krieg mit Japan, den Bürgerkrieg nach 1945, den »Großen Sprung nach vorn« und die »Große Proletarische Kulturrevolution«. Das wichtigste Ereignis aber war der Tod Mao Zedongs 1976.
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Kaiser, Kriegsverbrecher, Kommunist

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[b]
Als Baby auf den Thron, mit sechs Jahren davongejagt: 1912 wurde Puyi, der letzte Kaiser von China, abgesetzt. Der gefallene "Sohn des Himmels" kämpfte um seine Rückkehr, zweimal wurde er noch Kaiser - und blieb dennoch zeitlebens eine unmündige Marionette. [/b]

Beklagen konnte sich Puyi eigentlich nicht. 1000 Pfund Fleisch und 240 Stück Geflügel wurden jeden Monat für ihn bereitgestellt, jeden Mittag kreierte ein Heer aus Köchen Dutzende exquisite Gerichte, die auf Silbertellern gereicht wurden. Doch Puyi aß kaum etwas. Schließlich war er erst drei Jahre alt. Aber Kaiser von China, "Sohn des Himmels", Mittelpunkt der Welt.

In den folgenden Jahren wurde Puyi täglich in eine neue gelbe Seidenrobe mit Drachenmuster gesteckt und in Sänften durch die Verbotene Stadt in Peking getragen. Auf Ausflügen folgte ihm stets eine endlos lange Prozession aus Eunuchen, die alles mitnahm, was er brauchte und nicht brauchte: Kleider, Gebäck, Tee, das "Elixier der Drei Unsterblichen Genien" (eine Verdauungsspille), sogar seinen Nachttopf. Und auch beim Spielen setzte dem Kind niemand Grenzen.

Erlaubt war, was er wollte. Diener zwingen, Dreck aufzufressen. Sie auspeitschen zu lassen, sie mit eiskaltem Wasser bis zur Bewusstlosigkeit abzuspritzen, ihnen Eisenspäne auf den Kuchen zu streuen, mit dem Luftgewehr auf ihre Fenster zu ballern.

[b]Unmündige Marionette[/b]

So gesehen fehlte es Puyi an nichts. Und doch an allem. An einer echten Kindheit etwa. An der Möglichkeit, selbstbestimmt zu leben, Entscheidungen ohne all die Berater, Schmeichler und Einflüsterer zu treffen. Den Kaiserpalast in Peking bezeichnete er später als seinen Kerker. Puyi war auf dem Papier der mächtigste Mann seines Landes - und sollte doch zeitlebens eine unmündige Marionette bleiben: erst die seines Hofstaats, dann die der Japaner und zuletzt die der Kommunisten.
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Der Kaiser war nur Gips

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1911 endete in China die Agonie des jahrtausendealten Kaisertums – am 1. Januar 1912 wurde das Land Republik.


[img]http://images.zeit.de/wissen/geschichte/2011-12/china-kaiser-Daoguang/china-kaiser-Daoguang-540x304.jpg[/img]
Der ehemalige Kaiser Chinas, Daoguang

Sie belügen den Kaiser voller Demut und Hingabe. Schicken ihm seine Beamten ihre Berichte, dann tun sie dies »respektvoll kniend«, aus dem Wort »ich« wird »Euer Sklave« – was aber noch lange nicht heißt, dass ihre Berichte den Tatsachen entsprechen. Wer hätte es auch gewagt, seine Anstellung, vielleicht gar seinen Kopf zu riskieren, um dem Kaiser die Wahrheit zu sagen?

Die Wahrheit wäre mitten im ersten chinesisch-britischen Opiumkrieg zwischen 1839 und 1842 gewesen, dass Zehntausende Chinesen gestorben sind und die Briten von Sieg zu Sieg eilen, ohne dass die Soldaten des Kaisers ihnen auch nur das Geringste entgegensetzen können. Die Kriegsdschunken, die Forts, das so gewaltige wie korrupte Heer – sie können kaum etwas ausrichten.

Doch Chinas Kaiser Daoguang weiß von all dem nichts. So wie er nicht weiß, was die Briten eigentlich genau begehren. Seine Beamten haben sich wiederholt geweigert, das Schreiben entgegenzunehmen, in dem die Engländer ihre Friedensbedingungen diktieren. Und am allerwenigsten ahnt der Kaiser, dass die Ankunft der Fremden den Anfang vom Ende einleitet, den letzten Akt in der Geschichte der Qing-Dynastie. Wenige Jahrzehnte später wird das Reich zusammenbrechen wie ein Kartenhaus. Und mit ihm das mehr als zweitausendjährige chinesische Kaisertum.
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Sagenhafter Tempelschatz in Kerala entdeckt

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[b]
Es ist ein Ausnahmefund, der mehrere Milliarden Euro wert sein soll: In unterirdischen Kammern einer alten Kultstätte in Kerala wurden Goldketten und Edelsteine gefunden - und das könnte noch längst nicht alles gewesen sein.[/b]

Im südindischen Bundesstaat Kerala ist ein Tempelschatz entdeckt worden, dessen Wert nach ersten Schätzungen bei umgerechnet mehr als sieben Milliarden Euro liegen soll. Die fast 450 Jahre alte Kultstätte Sri Padmanabhaswamy in der Landeshauptstadt Thiruvananthapuram war erst vor kurzem ins Eigentum des Bundesstaates Kerala übergegangen. Zuvor hatte ein Gericht entschieden, dass die Nachkommen der Königsfamilie Travancore finanziell nicht in der Lage sind, für die Sicherheit der historischen - Vishnu gewidmeten - Anlage zu garantieren.

Gerichtsgutachter fanden die Reichtümer in unterirdischen Kammern, die offenbar seit 130 Jahren nicht mehr geöffnet worden waren. Weitere der insgesamt sechs Kammern des Tempels, der bislang seiner Skulpturen wegen Touristen angezogen hatte, stehen noch vor der Öffnung. Bis zum Ende der Woche wollen die Wissenschaftler ihre Inventur beendet haben und eine solide Schätzung vorlegen. Indische Zeitungen berichteten von sagenhaften Reichtümern, darunter goldene Statuen und mehrere hundert Kilogramm Goldmünzen. Zu den Schmuckfunden gehören eine sechs Meter lange Goldkette sowie Kronen, die mit Diamanten und anderen Edelsteinen besetzt sind.
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Wie deutsche Ärzte die Medizin in Japan reformierten

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Vorbild Deutschland: Vor 140 Jahren wurden zwei deutsche Militärärzte nach Japan entsandt, um die moderne Medizin ins Land zu bringen. Die Reform der Heilkunde in Japan.

Den beiden Ärzten bot sich ein für Mitteleuropäer ungewöhnliches Bild. Beim Besuch der Medizinschule Tokio im Jahr 1871 trafen sie 300 Studenten an, die in mehreren Sälen an großen Tischen versammelt waren, Pfeife rauchten und laut aus verschiedenen Büchern und Kapiteln lasen. "Alle gleichzeitig, in der bekannten, psalmodierenden Weise, so dass man etwa den Eindruck hatte, als träte man in eine Synagoge", notierte der preußische Militärarzt und Chirurg Leopold Müller (1824–1893). Mit dem Marinearzt und Internisten Theodor Hoffmann (1837–1894) war Müller nach Japan geholt worden, um die Medizin nach deutschem Muster umzuformen.
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China: Gottes zweiter Sohn

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[b]
Es war einer der blutigsten Bürgerkriege der Weltgeschichte: Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts versuchte die christliche Taiping-Bewegung, die Macht in China an sich zu reißen.[/b]

Christen sind heute in China eine bestenfalls geduldete Minderheit. Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts allerdings standen sie kurz davor, die Macht in dem Riesenreich zu übernehmen. Doch die große christlich-chinesische Revolution, die mit den Fieberträumen eines Provinzgelehrten begann, endete in einem Desaster von unvorstellbaren Ausmaßen – in Aufstand und Krieg. Am Ende zählte man 20 Millionen Tote, vielleicht waren es auch 30 oder sogar 50 Millionen, genau weiß das niemand. Sicher ist nur: Es war eine der größten Erhebungen, einer der blutigsten Bürgerkriege der Weltgeschichte.
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Der Taiping-Aufstand. Um ein Haar hätte er die morsche Mandschu-Dynastie hinweggefegt. Es war ein Aufstand des Glaubens, ein später Kreuzzug, ein Heiliger Krieg. Getragen wurde er von einer bizarren Gruppe christlich inspirierter Fundamentalisten unter ihrem Anführer Hong Xiuquan (Hong Tschiu-tschuan), die von 1850 an gegen die »dämonischen Tataren« kämpfte und dabei erstaunlich erfolgreich war. Zeitweise besetzten die Taiping ein Drittel des chinesischen Territoriums. Ihr Ziel war die Errichtung des »Taiping Tianguo«, eines christlichen »Himmelreichs des vollkommenen Friedens«. Ihr religiöses Rüstzeug erhielten sie durch protestantische Missionare, angeführt von einem deutschen Erweckungsprediger.
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Knospende Schreibkunst

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Ein bizarres Propaganda-Dokument aus den frühen Jahren Kim Jong Ils gibt Einblick in den nordkoreanischen "Journalismus".


[IMG]http://images.zeit.de/wissen/geschichte/2010-11/Kim-Jong-Il/Kim-Jong-Il-540x304.jpg[/IMG]
Ein Meister der Selbstinszenierung: Der nordkoreanische Diktator Kim Jong Il (rechts) begrüßt eine militärische Parade. Pjöngjang in Nordkorea, 1988

Gemeinhin gelten der ehemalige US-Präsident George W. Bush und seine Militärs als besondere Förderer des embedded journalism. Eingebettete Journalisten, das waren jene Reporter, die 2003 mit den US-Truppen in den Irak ziehen durften. Sofern sie den Regeln (ground rules) und dem richtungsweisenden Rat der Presseoffiziere für Texte und Kameraschwenks folgten.

Doch da gibt es auch noch einen anderen großen Freund williger Journalisten, der bereits in einer Schrift gewürdigt wird, die zwanzig Jahre vor dem Irakkrieg erschien: 1983 in Pjöngjang, der Hauptstadt Nordkoreas. Der Große Lehrer der Journalisten Kim Jong Il heißt das wahrlich atemraubende Werk eines anonymen Autors; es kam damals gleich auch in englischer Übersetzung heraus und wurde bis heute immer wieder aufgelegt. Es ist ein Dokument der vollständigen Manipulation, das in Anekdoten und bizarren Propagandaszenen mehr über die Geschichte Nordkoreas und den Zustand des geknebelten Landes verrät als mancher historische Bericht.

Kim Jong Il und sein Vater Kim Il Sung, der bis zu seinem Tod 1994 über Nordkorea herrschte: Der Personenkult um die beiden Diktatoren kannte und kennt keine Grenzen. Er schlägt dem Leser auch hier auf jeder Seite entgegen. Das Buch führt uns zurück in die sechziger und siebziger Jahre.
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Lange Nase, helle Haut

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Woher kommen die »europäischen« Toten, die mumifiziert in Chinas Wüstenboden lagen?


[IMG]http://images.zeit.de/wissen/2010-10/s36-xiaohe/s36-xiaohe-540x304.jpg[/IMG]
Im ewigen Schlaf: Die 3800 Jahre alte "Schöne von Xiaohe". Die Mumie stammt aus der Provinz Xinjiang im Westen Chinas

Der Mann muss Europäer sein, da besteht kaum ein Zweifel: 1,76 Meter groß, lange Nase, tief liegende Augen, blond-bräunliches Haar und helle Haut. Seine gut erhaltene Kleidung mutet osteuropäisch an. Und er ist seit 3200 Jahren tot. Das Besondere ist aber nicht sein biblisches Alter, sondern der Ort, an dem er in einer einfachen Glasvitrine ruht: in der chinesischen Provinzhauptstadt Ürümqi.

Ebenso eindeutig nichtasiatisch ist ein halbes Dutzend weiterer Mumien, das im örtlichen Museum zu bestaunen ist. Die Toten waren zwischen 1800 und 1200 vor Christus in der Senke nördlich der Taklamakan-Wüste beigesetzt worden. Die Mumifizierung hatte die Natur übernommen: Heftig schwankende Tages- und Nachttemperaturen und das Wüstenklima des Tarim-Beckens sorgten für eine Gefriertrocknung des Körpers. Der hohe Salzgehalt des Bodens hielt zersetzende Bakterien ab.
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Der höfliche Überfall

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Vor sechzig Jahren, im Herbst 1950, marschierten die Chinesen in Tibet ein.


[IMG]http://images.zeit.de/wissen/geschichte/2010-09/s22-tibet/s22-tibet-540x304.jpg[/IMG]
Chinesische Truppen marschieren um 1950 durch das tibetische Hochland. Gerade erst war die Volksbefreiungsarmee in Tibet eingerückt

Im September 1950 war es so weit. Chinas Volksbefreiungsarmee hatte ihre Vorbereitungen abgeschlossen. Die neue Straße zur tibetischen Grenze am Oberlauf des Jangtsekiang war fertig, und die Truppen hatten sechs Monate intensives Training hinter sich. Sie waren gerüstet für Kämpfe im Hochgebirge, für Märsche in hohem Tempo. In raschen Vorstößen sollten Tibets Truppen eingekesselt werden.

Der entscheidende Mann am Ort war Deng Xiaoping, später de facto Nachfolger Mao Tse-tungs, seinerzeit politischer Kommissar der Militärregion Südwest. Gewalt wollte er nur sparsam einsetzen. Stattdessen sollten möglichst viele Tibeter für das neue Regime gewonnen werden. Proklamationen versprachen »Garantie der Religionsfreiheit, Respekt vor Sitten und Gebräuchen und Schutz der Klöster und Tempel«. Die Soldaten bekamen Unterricht in tibetischer Religion, Kultur und Sprache. Unermüdlich wurde ihnen eingeschärft, »den Massen nicht eine Nadel wegzunehmen. […] Sprecht freundlich zu den Leuten.«

Direkte Verhandlungen hatte es zwischen Peking und Lhasa noch nicht gegeben. Aber die Tibeter wussten aus dem Radio, dass Chinas Truppen noch 1950 Tibet »befreien« wollten. Am 16. September traf sich immerhin in Delhi eine Delegation unter Leitung von Shakabpa Wangchuk Deden, einem Beamten vierten Grades, mit dem neuen chinesischen Botschafter Yuan Chung-hsien. Shakabpa versuchte Pekings Mann begreiflich zu machen, dass eine Befreiung Tibets vom Imperialismus ganz unnötig sei, denn es gebe keine imperialistischen Einflüsse. Dies freue ihn zu hören, erwiderte Yuan. Drei Punkte stünden allerdings nicht zur Verhandlung: Tibet sei als Teil Chinas zu betrachten, China sei verantwortlich für Tibets Verteidigung, und alle Verbindungen zu fremden Ländern würden von der Volksrepublik geregelt. Yuan erklärte, falls die Tibeter diese drei Punkte nicht akzeptierten, sei der Krieg unvermeidlich.
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Die koreanische Tragödie

News in Indien | Ferner Osten Noch keine Kommentare »
[b]
Im August 1910 annektierte Japan offiziell Korea. Es war der Anfang eines langen Leidenswegs.[/b]

Yu Chun-sung kam am Morgen des 6. August 1945 in Hiroshima an. Er gehörte zu jenen Hunderttausenden aus der Kolonie Korea, die in Japan lebten und für die Kriegsindustrie schuften mussten. Es war Viertel nach acht, als er aus dem Zug stieg. Im nächsten Moment erfasste ihn ein sengender Blitz. Geblendet stolperte über die Gleise, rannte weiter bis zu einer Anhöhe und verkroch sich in einer halb zerstörten Bauernkate. Nach 24 Stunden brachten ihn Retter auf einem Lkw in ein Hospital. Man bedeckte sein Gesicht mit einem ölgetränkten Mullverband. Wenige Tage später wimmelten Maden in den Brandwunden.
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Doch anders als Zehntausende Koreaner, die sich ebenfalls in Hiroshima und Nagasaki befanden und deren Leben die Atombomben auslöschten, sah der damals 28-jährige Yu die Heimat wieder. Er fand ein kurzes Glück als Gemüsehändler. Von 1950 an begann er Blut zu speien. Seine Frau brachte zwei fehlgebildete Kinder zur Welt. 1970 glich Yu einem Gespenst, der spindeldürre Körper bog sich unter Krämpfen zusammen. 1972 erlöste Yu Chun-sung der Tod.

Sein Schicksal gehört zu den späten Folgen eines Dramas, das schon im 19. Jahrhundert begann.
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Jäger sein, um nicht Beute zu werden

News in Indien | Ferner Osten 5 Kommentare »
Ein Akt des Kolonialismus, von dem man wenig spricht – vor hundert Jahren annektierte Japan Korea

Von 1910 bis 1945 musste Korea die Fremdherrschaft Japans erdulden. Die brutale Okkupation hat das Land später nicht daran gehindert, zu einer der führenden Wirtschaftsnationen der Welt aufzusteigen. Dennoch wiegt die koloniale Schmach schwer in der Psyche der Nation.
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Die einsamen Opfer der Todesfabrik

News in Indien | Ferner Osten Noch keine Kommentare »
[b]
Es war das schlimmste Chemieunglück in der Geschichte. 25 Jahre nach der Giftkatastrophe im indischen Bhopal leiden noch Zehntausende. Die Schuldigen wurden nie bestraft.[/b]

Die tödliche Wolke kommt im Dunkeln. Seit kurz nach Mitternacht entweichen in der Nacht zum 3. Dezember 1984 stundenlang fast 40 Tonnen Gift aus der Pestizidfabrik des US-Konzerns Union Carbide im indischen Bhopal. Die Fabrik liegt mitten im Armutsviertel der zentralindischen Stadt. Das Giftgas verätzt die Haut, die Augen, die Lungen, innere Organe, die Schleimhäute. Allein in den ersten drei Tagen nach dem Unglück sterben rund 8000 Menschen.

"Um 1.20 Uhr in der Nacht war auf einmal Panik. Menschen schrien. Meine Lungen brannten wie Feuer, meine Augen schwollen zu. Ich packte zwei meiner Kinder und rannte los. Dann brach ich bewusstlos zusammen." So erinnert sich Mohammed Sultan an das Unglück, 25 Jahre nach dem schlimmsten Chemieunglück der Geschichte.
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"Wir glaubten an eine bessere Gesellschaft, wir glaubten an Mao"

News in Indien | Ferner Osten 3 Kommentare »
[b]Als Mao die Volksrepublik ausrief, hofften die Chinesen auf einen Neuanfang. Der Aufschwung kam erst nach dessen Tod. Die totalitäre Ordnung blieb.[/b]

Der Platz des Himmlischen Friedens ist von Fahnen rot gefärbt. Die Menschenmassen drängen auf den Platz. Jubel hallt durch Peking. "China ist wieder auferstanden." Mit diesen Worten ruft Mao Tse-tung am 1. Oktober 1949 die Volksrepublik China aus.

Der Vorsitzende der Kommunistischen Partei Chinas (KPCh) ist der Held der Massen. Mao, der den Bürgerkrieg gewonnen und die Revolution zum Erfolg geführt hat. Damals verkörperte er die Hoffnung der Chinesen auf einen Neuanfang.

Auch 2009, wenn China den 60. Jahrestag der Volksrepublik feiert, ist Mao allgegenwärtig. Wenn die Panzer bei der Geburtstagsparade durch die Hauptstadt rollen, die Soldaten marschieren, wird die Welt auf Mao schauen. Sein überdimensionales Bild hängt noch immer am Tor des Himmlischen Friedens.

Obwohl Millionen Menschen unter seinem Regime verhungerten, gefoltert oder umgebracht wurden: Von vielen Chinesen wird der Diktator noch heute als genialer Feldherr und Staatsgründer verehrt.
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Philippinen: Corazon Aquino ist tot

News in Indien | Ferner Osten 2 Kommentare »
Die ehemalige philippinische Präsidentin Corazon Aquino ist im Alter von 76 Jahren gestorben. Aquino, die erste Frau im Präsidentenamt des Inselstaates war, galt als Ikone der Demokratie.

Die ehemalige philippinische Präsidentin Corazon Aquino ist am Samstag im Alter von 76 Jahren gestorben. Dies berichtete ihre Familie in der Hauptstadt Manila. Aquino, die die erste Frau im Präsidentenamt des Inselstaates war, litt an Darmkrebs. Aquino galt als Ikone der Demokratie auf den Philippinen.

Die ehemalige Hausfrau war nach dem Volksaufstand gegen Diktator Ferdinand Marcos von 1986 bis 1992 Präsidentin der Philippinen. Ihr Mann Benigno Aquino, ein prominenter Marcos-Gegner, war 1983 bei seiner Rückkehr aus dem Exil auf dem Flughafen von Marcos-Schergen erschossen worden. Nach dem Mord wuchs der Widerstand gegen den Diktator und gipfelte schließlich in dem Umsturz des Marcos-Regimes. In dem viertägigen Volksaufstand brachte sie Marcos und seine Familie zu Fall und trieb ihn in die Flucht nach Hawaii.
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Pioniere in Seide

News in Indien | Ferner Osten Noch keine Kommentare »
Die erste Seide wurde möglicherweise nicht in China, sondern im heutigen Pakistan produziert: Bei Ausgrabungen im Osten Pakistans haben Archäologen antike Seidenfasern entdeckt, die älter als alle bislang außerhalb Chinas entdeckten Fasern sind. Die Forscher um Irene Good von der Harvard University in Cambridge vermuten daher, dass sich die Seidenproduktion im Indus-Gebiet parallel zur chinesischen entwickelt haben könnte.
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Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 153

Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 154

Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 155

Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 157

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Kaiserstadt im Abseits

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Ob Olympische Spiele, Architekturhype oder Kunstmarktboom – alles spricht von Peking oder Schanghai. Wer aber das alte, beschauliche China noch kennenlernen will, besuche die alte Kaiserstadt Kaifeng.
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Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 153

Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 154

Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 155

Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 157

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Rätsel um Ursprung der Schöl-Stele geklärt

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Wiener Anthropologe identifizierte das Tal Tri als Herkunftsort der Stele aus dem 8. Jahrhundert, wo sie ein bedeutendes Hügelgrab zierte
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Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 153

Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 154

Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 155

Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 157

Deprecated: Function ereg_replace() is deprecated in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/inc/code.php on line 7

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1,8 Millionen Jahre alte Beile in Malaysia entdeckt

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Archäologen haben in Malaysia nach eigenen Angaben mehrere rund 1,8 Millionen Jahre alte Beile entdeckt. Die Äxte seien damit die ältesten der Welt. Die Forscher suchen nun nach Überresten menschlicher Knochen. Die bisher ältesten Funde sind rund 10 000 Jahre alt. Wegen des feuchten und warmen Wetters halten sich Knochenüberreste dort nicht besonders gut.
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(C) Daniel Oswald