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Sie griff nach den Sternen

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[b]
Frauen durften nicht durch große Teleskope gucken. Die Astronomin Maria Mitchell tat es doch. Und wurde weltberühmt. von Caterina Lobenstein[/b]

Als Maria Mitchell am Abend des 1. Oktober 1847 ihre Jacke überstreift und durch eine Luke auf das Dach ihres Elternhauses klettert, ist der Himmel sternenklar. Kein Baum versperrt ihr die Sicht, keine Wolke schiebt sich durch die Nacht. Sie hat ihr Fernrohr in der Hand, ein einfaches Refraktorteleskop aus Messing, 70-Millimeter-Objektiv. Wahrscheinlich hört sie von hier oben das Meer rauschen, wahrscheinlich sieht sie den Leuchtturm am Strand. Maria Mitchell wohnt auf einer Insel im Atlantik, südlich von Boston. Die Ureinwohner, die hier lebten, gaben der Insel den Namen Nantucket, "weit entferntes Land". Von Maria Mitchells Dach bis zum nächsten Festlandhafen sind es 50 Kilometer. Im Osten kommt nur noch Wasser, 5000 Kilometer Atlantischer Ozean. Dann irgendwann Portugal.

Die Farben dieser Insel sind so bleich, als hätte die Gischt sie ausgewaschen: aschgraue Strände, blassgelbe Dünen, grau geschindelte Häuser. "Die Insel ist so flach und eintönig, dass einem nichts übrig bleibt, als den Himmel anzugucken", schrieb Maria in ihr Tagebuch. Damals gab es hier keine Bäume und keine Straßenlaternen. Ein ideales Observatorium.

Kurz vor halb elf schwenkt Maria Mitchell ihr Fernrohr in Richtung Norden und entdeckt einen Stern, der dort nicht hingehört. Ein schwacher Lichtpunkt nahe am Nordpol, fünf Grad über dem Polarstern. Mitchell notiert die Position des Sterns und ahnt etwas.
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Als ein Trio den Atombomben-Code knackte

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[b]
Am 17. Dezember 1938 werden Hiroshima, Tschernobyl und die Nuklearmedizin möglich: Otto Hahn und Fritz Straßmann gelingt nach Vorarbeit von Lise Meitner die Kernspaltung. [/b]

"Es ist jetzt 11 Uhr abends; um 11.30 Uhr will Straßmann wiederkommen, so daß ich nach Hause kann allmählich. Es ist nämlich etwas bei dem 'Radiumisotop', was so merkwürdig ist, daß wir es vorerst nur Dir sagen." Als Chemiker Otto Hahn am 19. Dezember 1938 diesen Brief an seine gute Freundin, die Physikerin Lise Meitner schreibt, ist er verwirrt, fast verzweifelt. Die Experimente, die er und sein Mitarbeiter Fritz Straßmann am Berliner Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut angestellt haben, wollen einfach keinen Sinn ergeben.

"Es könnte noch ein höchst merkwürdiger Zufall vorliegen. Aber immer mehr kommen wir zu dem schrecklichen Schluß: unsere Radium-Isotope verhalten sich nicht wie Radium, sondern wie Barium. {...} Vielleicht kannst Du irgendeine phantastische Erklärung vorschlagen."

Die 1878 in Wien geborene Lise Meitner erreicht die Post Hahns in Stockholm. Seit dem Sommer 1938 forscht sie dort am Nobel-Institut für Physik – im Exil. Als Österreicherin mit deutscher Staatsbürgerschaft war Meitner aus dem von Nationalsozialisten beherrschten Deutschland geflohen. Sie selbst war evangelischen Glaubens, wurde aber wegen ihrer jüdischen Vorfahren verfolgt. Bereits 1933 hatte man ihr die Erlaubnis, an staatlichen Instituten zu lehren, entzogen. Jahrzehntelang hatte sie zuvor schon mit Hahn in Berlin geforscht – anfangs als unbezahlte und inoffizielle Assistentin. Erst 1926 hatte sie eine außerordentliche Professur für Kernphysik erhalten und war so Deutschlands erste Physikprofessorin geworden.
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Zwei Chaoten knacken die DNA

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[b]
Sie wollten den Nobelpreis und bekamen ihn: Mit Glück und kaum Sachverstand entdeckten Francis Crick und James Watson 1953 die Struktur des Erbguts.[/b]

"Mein lieber Michael, Jim Watson und ich haben wohl eine der wichtigsten Entdeckungen gemacht. Wir haben ein Modell für die Struktur von Des-oxy-ribose-nuklein-säure gebaut (lies es sorgfältig) kurz D.N.A. genannt." Francis Crick, 19. März 1953

Mit diesen Sätzen beginnt Francis Crick am 19. März 1953 einen Brief an seinen 12-jährigen Sohn, der mit Grippe im Bett seines Internatszimmers liegt. Das handgeschriebene Dokument, sieben Seiten lang, ist 60 Jahre später die wertvollste Korrespondenz der Welt. Etwas mehr als sechs Millionen Dollar zahlte dafür vor zwei Wochen ein Unbekannter auf einer Auktion von Christie’s in New York. 4,6 Millionen Euro für ein paar Seiten, auf die Crick erstmals den Aufbau der DNA krakelte.
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Als wir auf dem OP-Tisch das Gespür verloren

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Die erste offizielle Operation unter Narkose schrieb Geschichte. Den Bericht kürte das "New England Journal of Medicine" zur wichtigsten Studie der letzten 200 Jahre.


[IMG]http://images.zeit.de/wissen/geschichte/2012-11/erste-narkose-op/erste-narkose-op-540x304.jpg[/IMG]
Mediziner stellen 1846 eine der ersten Operationen nach, in der Äther als Narkosemittel eingesetzt worden ist. Die Aufnahme entstand in einem Bostoner OP-Saal mit dem Fotografie-Verfahren der Daguerreotypie.

"Schwierige Operationen wurden durchgeführt, ohne das Wissen des Patienten", schreibt der Chirurg Henry Jacob Begelow im New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) vom 18. November 1846. Was im ersten Moment erschreckend nach einem Horrorfilm klingt, ist Teil eines Berichts, den das renommierte medizinische Wissenschaftsmagazin als wichtigste Entdeckung der vergangenen beiden Jahrhunderte deklariert.

Das New England Journal of Medicine feiert in diesem Jahr seinen 200. Geburtstag und hat zu seinem Jubiläum die Geschichte der Medizin durchleuchtet. Auf der Suche nach bewegenden Entdeckungen, die das Fach revolutioniert haben, wurden die Redakteure fündig. Am Ende stimmten die Leser ab und befanden: Am wichtigsten sei die Möglichkeit einer schmerzfreien Operation, ohne diese bewusst miterleben zu müssen – die Narkose.
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Der Katzenpiesacker namens Schrödinger

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[b]
Physiker kennen Erwin Schrödinger wegen seines Modells der Quantenmechanik, andere wegen seines Gedankenspiels mit der Katze. Eine Streicheleinheit zum 125. Geburtstag.[/b]

Wenn Wissenschaftsfreaks Katzen halten, benennen sie sie gern nach Erwin Schrödinger. Nicht, weil der vor 125 Jahren geborene Mitbegründer der Quantenmechanik so ein Liebhaber anschmiegsamer Vierbeiner wäre. Der Wiener hat sich sogar ein Experiment ausgedacht, das für Katzen tödlich ausgehen kann – nur gut, dass es ein reines Gedankenspiel ist.

Aber von vorn, und erst einmal ohne Katze.
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Der Einstein der Mathematik

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[b]
Vor 150 Jahren wurde David Hilbert geboren – ein deutscher Jahrhundertmathematiker[/b]

Paris, August 1900. Die erste Metro-Linie fährt seit einem knappen Monat, die Olympischen Spiele halten die Stadt in Atem, und die Weltausstellung präsentiert Visionen von den Fortschritten des bevorstehenden 20. Jahrhunderts. Vielleicht haben dieser Rummel und das heiße Wetter die Wissenschaftler abgeschreckt: Nur 230 der ursprünglich erwarteten 1.000 Teilnehmer sind zum zweiten Internationalen Mathematikerkongress gekommen.

Unter ihnen ist der 38-jährige David Hilbert, ein Professor aus Göttingen. Man erwartet von dem Vorsitzenden der Deutschen Mathematiker-Vereinigung (DMV) eine Rückschau auf die Entwicklung der Mathematik im 19. Jahrhundert. Doch der Redner blickt nicht zurück, sondern nach vorn. Bis zur letzten Minute hat er an seinem Vortrag mit dem Titel Mathematische Probleme gefeilt. Hilbert will der Disziplin mit seiner Liste von ungelösten Fragen ein Programm für die nächsten Jahrzehnte vorgeben.

»Wer von uns würde nicht gern den Schleier lüften, unter dem die Zukunft verborgen liegt, um einen Blick zu werfen auf die bevorstehenden Fortschritte unsrer Wissenschaft und in die Geheimnisse ihrer Entwickelung während der künftigen Jahrhunderte!«
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Als Ikone vermarktet, aber der Forschung verschrieben

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Vor 100 Jahren bekam die Physikerin Marie Curie ihren Zweiten Nobelpreis. Sie gilt bis heute als ein Vorbild für Frauen in der Forschung – und wollte es doch nie sein.


[IMG]http://images.zeit.de/wissen/geschichte/2011-09/marie-curie-labor/marie-curie-labor-540x304.jpg[/IMG]
Marie Curie arbeitet 1925 in ihrem Labor an der Pariser Universität.

"Wir haben hier eine vollkommen unabhängige Chemie […], welche wir die Chemie des Unberechenbaren nennen könnten." Mit diesen Worten nahm die damals 44-jährige Marie Curie den Chemienobelpreis von 1911 entgegen. Noch 100 Jahre nach der Auszeichnung gilt Curie als Vorbild für Frauen in der Wissenschaft schlechthin. Dabei war ihr diese Rolle zu Lebzeiten selbst mehr ein unausweichliches Übel im Dienste der Forschung, als ein persönliches Bedürfnis.
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Reise gen Mittelpunkt der Erde

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[b]
Vor 50 Jahren verlegen die USA das Wettrennen im All unter die Erde: "Project Mohole" beginnt. Sein Ziel: Tiefer in die Erdkruste bohren als jemals zuvor.[/b]

Als alle Welt sich die Hälse verrenkt, um den Wettlauf zwischen Amerikanern und Sowjets auf dem Weg ins All zu verfolgen, schaut ein Ozeanograph und Geophysiker in die entgegengesetzte Richtung.

1957, dem Jahr, in dem Sputnik als erster künstlicher Satellit um die Erde schleudert, schlägt Walter Munk vor, das tiefste Loch der Welt zu bohren. Er will die Erdkruste durchstoßen, um erstmals Proben aus dem Mantel des Planeten zu entnehmen.

Es ist eine bessere Schnapsidee, die da an einem März-Vormittag 1957 in Munks Haus geboren wird. Kollegen vom Scripps-Institut für Ozeanographie im kalifornischen La Jolla und andere Gelehrte sind zum Sektfrühstück eingeladen. Man fachsimpelt, von der Bläschenbrause inspiriert, über Gedanken wie den, aus der Antarktis einen Eisklotz nach Kalifornien zu schleppen und mit dem Schmelzwasser Obstplantagen zu bewässern.

Eine Idee überlebt die Sektlaune: Munks Projekt Mohole. Seinen Namen bekommt es nach der Grenzfläche zwischen Erdkruste und Erdmantel: der Mohorovičić-Diskontinuität, von Geologen liebevoll Moho genannt. Daraus wird unter Verschmelzung mit dem englischen [i]hole[/i] für Loch der Name Mohole.
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Der Kalender-Macher

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[b]

Vor 300 Jahren starb Gottfried Kirch. Er war ein exzellenter Himmelsbeobachter und astronomischer Rechner. Seine Arbeiten in Berlin wurden zur Keimzelle der deutschen Forschung.[/b]

Die Jahrhundertwende steht bevor und der Kurfürst blickt neidvoll nach Paris und London. Aufstrebende Universitäten und Akademien, prachtvolle Bauwerke, verleihen dem Ruf der dortigen Herrscher Glanz. Friedrich III., Markgraf von Brandenburg und wegen einer verkrüppelten Schulter der „Schiefe Fritz“ genannt, plant deshalb Großes – für sich und für Berlin. Er will nicht nur als Friedrich I. erster König in Preußen werden – die Krönung findet am 18. Januar 1701 statt – er lässt gleichzeitig das eher provinzielle Berlin zur prächtigen Barockstadt ausbauen.

Auf Anregung von Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz gründet er zur Feier der Jahrhundertwende 1700 die Kurfürstlich-Brandenburgische Societät der Wissenschaften. Gleichzeitig soll eine Sternwarte gebaut werden, zu deren erstem Königlichen Astronomen der Noch-Kurfürst Gottfried Kirch beruft. Kirch ist zu diesem Zeitpunkt bereits 60 Jahre alt, ein exzellenter Himmelsbeobachter und astronomischer Rechner, der sein Geld mit der Herausgabe von Kalendern verdient.
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Zeitkapsel voller Schmetterlinge

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[b]
Das Lebenswerk eines Naturforschers versank 1939 im Atlantik. Ein einziger Koffer bleibt übrig.[/b]

Ende August 1939 verließ das Handelsschiff Inn den brasilianischen Hafen Pará mit Kurs auf Deutschland. Wäre es in Hamburg angekommen, gälte Arnold Schultze heute als einer der großen deutschen Naturforscher des 20. Jahrhunderts. Doch Schultze hatte Pech: Die Weltgeschichte bescherte ihm den GAU eines Forscherlebens.

Denn die Inn liegt auf dem Meeresgrund. Mit ihr Zehntausende Käfer und Pflanzenblätter, Wurzeln und Tagebuchseiten, Samen und Skizzen: die Dokumente einer viereinhalbjährigen Sammeltour durch Ecuador. Am 3. September 1939 – die Schultzes waren bereits auf See – erklärten nämlich die Alliierten dem Deutschen Reich den Krieg. Die Atlantikblockade trat in Kraft. Am 5. September versenkten die Briten südwestlich der Kanaren das Schiff samt Sammlung. Das Paar wurde gefangen genommen. Internierung in Dakar, Unterschlupf auf Madeira, 1948 der Tod: Die Öffentlichkeit bekam keine Gelegenheit, Arnold Schultzes Schaffen zur Kenntnis zu nehmen. Selbst die Herbarien und Aufzeichnungen, die er vor Ausbruch des Kriegs an das Botanische Museum in Berlin-Dahlem versandt hatte, raffte ein Bombenangriff dahin. Aus dem Gedächtnis heraus brachte Schultze zwar auf Madeira noch »Pflanzengeographische Beobachtungen« zu Papier. Mit den Originalen aber war die Forscherleistung im Ozean versenkt.

Doch der Zufall schlug nicht nur am 5. September zu. Wochen vor der Abreise hatte Schultze in Kolumbien einen Koffer per Post aufgegeben. Er erreichte Berlin, wurde im Naturkundemuseum registriert als »Koffer 41/Trockenmaterial«. Nur ausgewertet hat den Inhalt niemand. Bis 2006.
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Vom Pesthaus zur weltberühmten Charité

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Einst war sie Anlaufstelle für Bettler, dann eine medizinische Forschungsstätte. Heute ist sie das größte Uniklinikum Europas: Die Berliner Charité wird 300 Jahre alt.


[IMG]http://images.zeit.de/wissen/geschichte/2010-05/charite-historisch/charite-historisch-180xVar.jpg[/IMG]
Die Charité im Jahr 1740: Das königliche Militärhospital, dessen Name aus dem Französischen stammt, was übersetzt Barmherzigkeit bedeutet

Das hätten die Berliner sich sparen können. Da bauen sie aus Angst vor der Pest eine Quarantänestation in sicherem Abstand vor den Toren der Stadt – doch die Krankheit erreicht die königlich-preußische Residenzstadt gar nicht. König Friedrich I. ergeht es wie seinen modernen Nachfahren mit der Schweinegrippe: Vorausschauende Klugheit wirkt hinterher wie blinder Aktionismus.

Doch das kann niemand wissen, als die ersten Spatenstiche am 13. Mai 1710 die Erde nordwestlich der Stadtgrenzen Berlins durchpflügen. Seit 1709 wütet die Pest in Polen und Ostpreußen, Hunderttausende Menschen sterben. 1711 verebbt der schwarze Spuk, ohne in Berlin angekommen zu sein. Das "Pesthaus" bleibt leer. Zunächst quartieren die Berliner sozial Benachteiligte in dem Gebäude ein – damals heißen sie Bettler und Streuner. Auch mittellose alte Menschen wohnen hier. Und das Haus dient als Entbindungseinrichtung für unehelich Schwangere – mit den Hebammen hält die Medizin Einzug. Bald werden auch Soldaten der nahen preußischen Garnison hier behandelt.
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Der nächste Preußenkönig, Friedrich Wilhelm I., erklärt per Kabinettsorder: "Seine Königliche Majestät in Gnaden erlauben, dass in dem Garnison-Lazarett vor dem Spandowschen Thor auch ein Bürger-Lazarett angelegt werden soll." Und er notiert: "Es soll das Haus die Charité heißen." Am 1. Januar 1727 wird dieses Bürger-Lazarett eröffnet.
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Revolution und Weltuntergang – die Mythen um Islands Vulkane

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[b]
Der Vulkanausbruch am Eyjafjalla-Gletscher ruft Erinnerungen wach: Eruptionen auf Island verdunkelten 1783 den Himmel über Europa. Mythen darum halten sich bis heute.[/b]

Im Jahr 1783 erlebte Island eine Naturkatastrophe, die auf der gesamten nördlichen Hemisphäre Spuren hinterließ. Damals brach der Vulkan Lakagígar im Süden der Insel aus. Monatelang floss Lava aus mehr als 100 Kratern in der Laki-Spalte. Gleichzeitig spuckten die Krater Asche – eine verhängnisvolle Mischung aus Kohlenmonoxid, Kohlendioxid, Schwefel und anderen hochgiftigen Stoffen. Wochenlang verdunkelten Aerosole in der Troposphäre den Himmel – nicht nur auf Island, sondern auch auf dem europäischen Festland.

Auf Island wurde die Ernte durch die vergifteten Niederschläge weitgehend vernichtet. Große Teile des Viehbestandes verendeten qualvoll. So wurde ein Kreislauf in Gang gesetzt, der etwa 10.000 Menschen in den zwei folgenden Jahren das Leben kostete. Die "Nebelhungersnot" hat sich tief ins kollektive Gedächtnis der Isländer eingebrannt.
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Preußische Präzision

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Zuckende Froschschenkel, selbst gewickelte Magnetspulen und zornige junge Männer: Wie Berlin zum Zentrum der aufstrebenden Naturwissenschaften wurde.


[IMG]http://images.zeit.de/wissen/geschichte/2010-01/apoll-labor-bois-reymond/apoll-labor-bois-reymond-540x304.jpg[/IMG]
Apoll im Labor. Mit diesem Experiment ermittelte der Berliner Physiologe Emil Du Bois-Reymond um 1850 elektrische Ströme im Muskel

Ein Abend im November 1847. Ort der Handlung: Berlin. Genauer: das dicht bevölkerte "Medizinerviertel" südlich der Charité, in etwa das, was man heute ein "Szeneviertel" nennen würde. Hier leben Künstler, Studenten, Lebedamen neben Handwerkern, Kaufleuten, Gelehrten und Offizieren. Die meisten Häuser sind schon dunkel. Nur in einer kleinen Wohnung in der Karlstraße 21, der heutigen Reinhardtstraße, brennt noch Licht.

Beim Schein einer Petroleumlampe beugt sich ein junger Mann über einen Experimentiertisch. Zwischen zwei Metallstativen ist ein enthäuteter Froschmuskel eingespannt. Feine Drähte führen von der Aufhängung zu elektrischen Apparaturen. Das blasse, kaum bleistiftdicke Gebilde zieht sich zusammen – der Muskel zuckt. Der junge Mann ist begeistert. Freudig erregt notiert er das Ergebnis des Versuchs. Dann springt er auf, geht in der halbdunklen Stube auf und ab. "Elektrizität!", ruft er aus. Sein Name: Emil Du Bois-Reymond, 28, Arzt und Wissenschaftler, Spross einer Hugenottenfamilie.
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Medizingeschichte: Wie Operationen schmerzfrei wurden

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[b]
Alraunenwein, Lachgas und moderne Narkose: Die Geschichte der Anästhesie ist so alt wie die Menschheit. Der Schmerzlinderung verdanken wir den Siegeszug der Chirurgie.[/b]

[img]http://images.zeit.de/wissen/geschichte/2009-12/anaesthesie-geschichte/anaesthesie-geschichte-540x304.jpg[/img]
Im Operationssaal Ende der 1930er Jahre: Die moderne Narkose, bei der Patienten über die Atemwege betäubt werden, machte schwierigste chirurgische Eingriffe erst möglich

Das waren noch paradiesische Zustände, als Gott ganz schmerzfrei eine Rippe aus Adams Körper entfernte. "Da ließ der Herr einen tiefen Schlaf fallen auf den Menschen, und er schlief ein. Und er nahm seiner Rippen eine und schloss die Stätte mit Fleisch zu", erzählt uns die Schöpfungsgeschichte des Alten Testaments.

Die erste Narkose (von griechisch "Narkos", der Schlaf) war zugleich für lange Zeit auch die letzte. Nach der Vertreibung aus dem Paradies mussten die Menschen nicht nur ihr Brot im Schweiße ihres Angesichts verdienen, sondern auch Kinder unter Schmerzen gebären. Der Körper musste aufgeschnitten werden, um eine Geschwulst zu entfernen. Ein nach einer Verletzung lebensgefährlich infiziertes Bein musste amputiert werden.
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Chirurgie des 19. Jahrhunderts - Theater der Höllenqualen

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London. Mehr Späne, bitte! Das Blut läuft und hat sich in der Holzbox unter dem Operationstisch mit Holzspänen zu einem "bloody porridge" vermischt – das Zeichen für den Chirurgen, nach mehr Spänen zu verlangen, auf dass es in der Barockkirche unter dem Operationssaal nicht von der Decke tropfe.

[IMG]http://www.fr-online.de/_em_daten/_multicom/2009/10/23/teaser/091023_pan_op_teaser.jpg[/IMG]
Säge zum Amputieren: Operationsbesteck aus dem 19. Jahrhundert.

Die Schreie des Patienten, dessen Bein mangels Anästhesie in weniger als zehn Minuten amputiert sein muss, werden lediglich durch einen Holzstock abgemildert, in den er sich verbissen hat. Doch zum Glück befinden wir uns nicht am Beginn des 19. Jahrhunderts, und auch die Amputation ist nur eine Vorführung. Das Umfeld ist freilich original. Der Operationssaal datiert von 1822. Betäubung und antiseptische Behandlungsmethoden waren damals nicht bekannt.
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Das Leben von Charles Darwin

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Das Jahr 2009 wird auch sein Jahr: Zum 150. Mal jährt sich die Veröffentlichung von Charles Darwins bahnbrechendem Grundlagenwerk „Über die Entstehung der Arten". Da zudem im Februar der 200. Geburtstag des Naturforschers ansteht, wurde 2009 international zum Darwin-Jahr ausgerufen.
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66 Millionen Lichtjahre weit weg

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Lange hatten die Astronomen darauf gewartet - und waren am Ende doch vom Zeitpunkt der Entdeckungsmeldung überrascht. Kürzlich berichteten Nasa und die Europäische Südsternwarte Esa gemeinsam über das erste Foto des Hubble-Weltraumteleskops vom Planeten eines anderen Sterns, rund 25 Lichtjahre von der Sonne entfernt.
Vor 400 Jahren dürfte die Situation ganz ähnlich gewesen sein. Jahrtausende hindurch hatten Sternenkundige sich auf das bloße Vermessen der Gestirnsbewegungen beschränken müssen und daraus ein einfaches, naives Weltbild abgeleitet. Es sah die Erde und den Menschen im Mittelpunkt, umgeben von sieben kristallenen Sphären für die Planeten oder Wandelsterne und der alles einhüllenden Fixsternkugel. Vor vierhundert Jahren eröffnete dann
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Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 155

Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 157

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Deutsche Naturforscher im 18. Jahrhundert

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Sie waren Teilnehmer berühmter europäischer Expeditionen bei der Erforschung bisher unbekannter Regionen der Erde im 18. Jahrhundert – deutsche Naturforscher. Sie verarbeiteten eine Flut an neuen Informationen über Flora, Fauna und Völker außereuropäischer Erdteile - deren Vermittlung traf hier auf ein überaus interessiertes, begeistertes Publikum und erweiterte den Wissenshorizont sprunghaft.

Deutsche Naturforscher im 18. Jahrhundert / Kassel und Göttingen
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Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 155

Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 157

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Darwins gesammelte Geistesblitze im Internet

News in Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften 2 Kommentare »
Charles Darwins Evolutionstheorie kann erstmals vollständig und kostenfrei im Internet nachgelesen werden: Die Universität Cambrige hat 20.000 Fotos, und wissenschaftliche Texte des britischen Naturforschers veröffentlicht. Der öffentliche Zugang zu den Primärquellen sei eine Revolution, so der Projektleiter.
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Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 155

Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 157

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Die Frage der Woche: Was war die größte Entdeckung aller Zeiten?

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Was war der größte Durchbruch in der Wissenschaft, die wichtigste Entdeckung der Menschheit? Darüber lässt sich natürlich trefflich diskutieren.

War es die Erfindung des Rads? Die Relativitätstheorie oder der Kunstdünger? Die Elektrizität? Oder der Kartoffelschäler? Natürlich hängt das Urteil ab davon, was man als Maßstab nimmt, um die Bedeutung einer Entdeckung einzuschätzen:

Durch manches wurde die Technologie nach vorn gebracht und unser Leben erleichtert oder sogar verlängert. Anderes hat uns eine neue Perspektive auf die Welt, in der wir leben, ermöglicht.
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Wie Galilei die Mondgebirge entdeckte

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Die wohl ersten Mondbilder von Galileo Galilei sind vor kurzem aufgetaucht. Seine künstlerische Begabung ermöglichte ihm die richtige Deutung der Mondflecken
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Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 155

Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 157

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Isaac Newtons Weltuntergangsprognose für 2060

News in Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften 1 Kommentar »
Isaac Newton, einer der einflussreichsten Wissenschafter der Welt, hat Anfang des 18. Jahrhunderts das Ende der Welt für das Jahr 2060 vorausgesagt. In der Ausstellung "Newtons Geheimnisse" präsentiert die Hebräische Universität in Jerusalem seit Sonntag unter anderem einen Brief von 1704, in dem der Forscher das Weltende auf 1.260 Jahre nach der (800 nach Christus erfolgten) Gründung des Heiligen Römischen Reiches festsetzte.
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Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 157

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Der Garten Eden als System

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Er gab Pflanzen und Tieren ihre Namen. Seine Zuordnung des Individuums zu Gattung und Art hat noch heute Bestand. Carl von Linnés Botschaft bis heute ist: Das Paradies ist ein botanischer Garten. Eine Würdigung des Pioniers der Gärtner anlässlich seines 300. Geburtstags.
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Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 153

Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 154

Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 155

Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 157

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Papst weist Naturwissenschaft in die Schranken

News in Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften 6 Kommentare »
Die Evolution ist nicht beweisbar, Wissenschaftler dürfen nicht alle Fragen beantworten: Mit einem Beitrag in einem theologischen Fachbuch will Benedikt XVI. der Kirche die Deutungshoheit über zentrale Themen sichern. Immerhin gibt er zu: Auch der Glaube kann nicht alles erklären.
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Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 153

Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 154

Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 155

Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 157

Deprecated: Function ereg_replace() is deprecated in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/inc/code.php on line 7

Deprecated: Function ereg_replace() is deprecated in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/inc/code.php on line 8

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Deprecated: Function ereg_replace() is deprecated in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/inc/code.php on line 38

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/inc/code.php on line 45

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Galileis erste Mond-Bilder entdeckt

News in Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften 3 Kommentare »
In New York ist ein Buch mit Zeichnungen von Galileo Galilei aufgetaucht. Die Bilder zeigen die zerklüftete Oberfläche des Mondes, wie der Forscher sie vor fast 400 Jahren als Erster gesehen hat. Experten glauben, dass sie es mit der Urfassung von Galileis berühmtestem Werk zu tun haben.
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(C) Daniel Oswald