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Südtiroler Gletscher gibt Schneeschuh aus Zeit vor Ötzi frei

News in Frühzeit des Menschen Noch keine Kommentare »
[b]
Der Gletscher am Gurgler Eisjoch im Südtiroler Pfossental hat einen Schneeschuh freigegeben, der offenbar älter als Ötzi ist.[/b]

Eine Radiokarbondatierung habe ergeben, dass der Schuh aus der späten Jungsteinzeit stammt, also zwischen 3.800 bis 3.700 vor Christus, teilte das Land Südtirol am Dienstag mit. Der Schneeschuh ist damit älter als die Gletschermumie Ötzi, der nach bisherigen wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnissen um 3.200 vor Christus am Tisenjoch ums Leben kam.

Der Fund soll am Montag, 12. September in Bozen vorgestellt werden.
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Frühestes bekanntes Fest der Menschheit war sorgfältig geplantes Event

News in Frühzeit des Menschen Noch keine Kommentare »
[b]
Jerusalem/Wien – Es war mit Sicherheit keine alltägliche Bestattung: Als vor 12.000 Jahren in der Hilazon-Tachtit-Höhle im westlichen Galiläa eine ältere Frau in ihr Grab gelegt wurde, dürfte das Anlass für ein großes Fest gewesen sein. Zahlreiche Schildkrötenpanzer und abgeschabte Tierknochen weisen auf einen opulenten Leichenschmaus mit mindestens drei Dutzend Teilnehmern hin. Die 2010 vorgestellten Funde gelten bis heute als das früheste bekannte Zeugnis für Festivitäten des modernen Menschen.[/b]
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For Peaceable Humans, Don’t Look to Prehistory

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Archaeology has finally laid to rest the idea that earlier human societies were completely peaceful. Melvin Konner on new evidence.


[IMG]https://si.wsj.net/public/resources/images/BN-OS726_MINDMA_12S_20160630170622.jpg[/IMG]
Illustration: Tim Lahan

Along a river in northern Germany, thousands of men lined up for a pitched battle. Some had come great distances, determined to seize or hold this modest waterway. They went at it mercilessly, leaving hundreds dead, many shot in the back while fleeing. Victory was decisive.

World War II? Perhaps the Napoleonic Wars? The 30 Years’ War?

Actually, you won’t find this battle in any history book. It happened around 1250 B.C., roughly the era of the Trojan War and the biblical war of Deborah. The weapons and tactics were similar to those famous conflicts, the numbers mobilized equally impressive.

But in illiterate Northern Europe, no one chronicled the German battle in song and saga, with heroes’ names echoing down the centuries, and no one knew of the event until very recently.
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Forscher untersuchen ältestes Babygrab Deutschlands

News in Frühzeit des Menschen Noch keine Kommentare »
[b]
In der mittleren Steinzeit lebten die Menschen im heutigen Mitteleuropa als Nomaden. Ihre Toten begruben sie dort, wo sie gerade Rast machten. Die Entdeckung auf einem Hügel in der brandenburgischen Uckermark von Dutzenden Skeletten, darunter dem eines Babys, war darum eine Sensation. Forscher an der Hochschule für Technik und Wirtschaft in Berlin untersuchen jetzt den Fund.[/b]
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Archäologen finden Belege für Seefahrt in der Altsteinzeit

News in Frühzeit des Menschen Noch keine Kommentare »
[b]
Erreichten Frühmenschen wie Homo erectus Europa auf dem Seeweg? Das galt lange als unmöglich. Neue Funde auf Kreta stellen jetzt geltende Theorien infrage.[/b]

Von Esther Widmann

Archäologische Funde aus der frühen Steinzeit auf Kreta stellen womöglich die bisherige Besiedlungsgeschichte Europas infrage. Lange Zeit gingen Forscher davon aus, dass die Insel, auf der die erste europäische Hochkultur entstand, erst um etwa 6000 vor Christus besiedelt wurde. Doch ein Langzeitprojekt um die Spezialisten Curtis Runnels von der Boston University und Thomas Strasser vom Providence College kommt zu neuen Ergebnissen. Bei Ausgrabungen an der Südküste Kretas entdeckten die Archäologen Steinwerkzeuge aus der Mittelsteinzeit und der Altsteinzeit, die mehr als 130 000 Jahre alt sind. Zahlreiche Thesen über den Mittelmeerraum und die Menschheitsgeschichte müssten damit umformuliert werden, glauben die Wissenschaftler.
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Wo der Kult beginnt

News in Frühzeit des Menschen Noch keine Kommentare »
[b]
Schimpansen zeigen Rituale, deren Sinn sich Wissenschaftlern noch nicht erschließt.
Manche werfen mit Steinen auf Bäume, andere zeigen "Regen-" oder "Wasserfall-Tänze".
Einige Forscher halten dies für mögliche Hinweise auf den Ursprung von Religiosität.

Für die meisten Strenggläubigen ist klar: Überirdische Wesen sind in der Vergangenheit auf die eine oder andere Weise in Kontakt mit Menschen getreten, haben sich als Götter offenbart oder - wie viele Mythen besagen - ins Weltgeschehen eingegriffen.

Die alternative Erklärung ist: Religiosität hat sich im Rahmen der Evolution des Menschen entwickelt. Nicht Götter haben den Menschen erschaffen, sondern es war umgekehrt. Irgendwann sind demnach unsere Vorfahren auf die Idee gekommen, dass hinter unbegreiflichen Vorgängen göttliche Mächte stecken. Spätestens seit der Steinzeit vor etwa 120 000 Jahren sprechen jedenfalls Grabbeilagen sowohl bei Neandertalern als auch beim Homo sapiens immerhin für Bestattungsrituale.

Die Ursprünge der Religiosität könnten allerdings auch sehr viel früher in der Evolution liegen - vielleicht sogar vor dem Auftreten der ersten Menschen. Spektakuläre Beobachtungen frei lebender Schimpansen deuten darauf hin, dass unsere nächsten Verwandten bereits Rituale kennen, die zumindest an mehr oder weniger religiös motivierte menschliche Verhaltensweisen erinnern.
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Archäologe: Krieg muss es nicht geben!

News in Frühzeit des Menschen 6 Kommentare »
[b]
Wir, die Menschen, sind eigentlich kooperative, friedliebende Wesen, und Kriege können auch wieder abgeschafft werden. Eine eher überraschende These – aber der Archäologe Harald Meller kann sie gut begründen.[/b]

"Der Frieden ist eigentlich der Naturzustand." In Zeiten, in denen Millionen Menschen vor Krieg und Vertreibung nach Europa flüchten, ist diese These ungewöhnlich. Der Direktor des Landesamts für Denkmalpflege und Archäologie Sachsen-Anhalt, Harald Meller, begründet sie historisch. Krieg gebe es erst seit etwa 10.000 vor Christus, sagte er im Deutschlandradio Kultur. Er kommt mit der Ausbildung des Ackerbauerntums und der ersten Bevölkerungsexplosion auf.
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Ältester Friedhof Deutschlands entdeckt

News in Frühzeit des Menschen Noch keine Kommentare »

Archäologen haben in der Uckermark einen mehr als 8.000 Jahre alten Friedhof freigelegt. Besonders interessieren sich die Forscher für ein bisher einzigartiges Babygrab.


[IMG]http://www.zeit.de/wissen/geschichte/2016-02/aeltester-friedhof-gross-fredenwalde-berlin/bitblt-820x461-a3e51d71c8dda868e84c15b7e77b675bec3f935b/wide[/IMG]Archäologen haben in Brandenburg eine mehr als 8.000 Jahre alte Grabstätte mit dem ältesten bisher bekannten Babygrab Mitteleuropas entdeckt.

Archäologen haben nördlich von Berlin den ältesten bisher bekannten Friedhof Deutschlands entdeckt. Das Gräberfeld wurde um 6.400 vor Christi angelegt. In jener Zeit trafen auf damals dort noch heimische Jäger und Sammler erste Bauern.

Bei den erneuten Ausgrabungen entdeckten die Wissenschaftler einen Schädel und durcheinander liegende Knochen. "Der Tote war aufrecht bestattet worden und fiel später zusammen", sagt Thomas Terberger vom Niedersächsischen Landesamt für Denkmalpflege. Das Grab war wohl eine Weile offen geblieben und erst als der Oberkörper zusammengefallen war, hatte man es mit Erde versiegelt und darauf ein Feuer entzündet. Es gebe keine vergleichbaren Funde aus jener Zeit.

Außerdem legten die Archäologen ein Babygrab frei.
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Folgenreiche Techtelmechtel vor 100 000 Jahren

News in Frühzeit des Menschen 6 Kommentare »
[b]
Moderne Menschen wanderten offenbar viel früher als bisher angenommen aus Afrika aus – und hinterließen dabei Spuren im Erbgut der Neandertaler.[/b]

Wanderfreudig und intimen Begegnungen mit Fremden zumindest nicht abgeneigt – so könnten die Forscher um Svante Pääbo vom Max-Planck-Institut für evolutionäre Anthropologie (EVA) in Leipzig ihre Erbgut-Analysen zur Frühgeschichte der Menschheit und ihrer nächsten Verwandten zusammenfassen. Als die modernen Menschen ihre Wiege, die vor 200 000 Jahren in Afrika stand, vor etwa 65 000 Jahren verließen, trafen sie irgendwo in Eurasien Neandertaler. Bei solchen Begegnungen wurde bisweilen auch mehr als ein bloßes Hallo gewechselt.
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Geschlechterrollen: Forscher entzaubern die Steinzeit-Klischees

News in Frühzeit des Menschen Noch keine Kommentare »
[b]
Der Mann ging auf die Jagd, die Frau saß in der Höhle bei den Kindern: So war die Rollenverteilung in der Steinzeit. Oder etwa doch nicht? Wissenschaftler äußern inzwischen Zweifel - und rütteln damit an uralten Geschlechterklischees.[/b]
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Haustür in die Bronzezeit

News in Frühzeit des Menschen 7 Kommentare »
[IMG]http://polpix.sueddeutsche.com/polopoly_fs/1.2817201.1452696275!/httpImage/image.jpg_gen/derivatives/640x360/image.jpg[/IMG]
Die Siedlung war auf Stelzen gebaut, ein Feuer zerstörte die Häuser. (Foto: REUTERS)

Es brannte lichterloh, dann stürzte die Hütte in einem britischen Dorf in den Fluss: Ein Unglück. 3000 Jahre später entpuppt es sich als Glücksfall für Archäologen.
Von Esther Widmann


Auf den ersten Blick erinnert es an ein Mikado-Spiel, das Durcheinander von langen Holzpfählen, die da unweit von Peterborough im Osten von England im Matsch liegen. Auf den zweiten Blick lassen sich neben den liegenden Pfählen auch einige kürzere, aufrecht im Boden steckende Pflöcke ausmachen. Und erst auf den dritten Blick, mit Hilfe farbiger Markierungen, erkennt man: Das ist kein Mikado. Das war vor ziemlich langer Zeit einmal ein Haus - ein Rundhaus auf Stelzen.
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Das Rätsel der Inselbewohner

News in Frühzeit des Menschen 20 Kommentare »
[b]
Auf der indonesischen Insel Sulawesi haben Paläoanthropologen 194 000 Jahre alte Steinwerkzeuge gefunden. Wer waren die archaischen Bewohner, und wie gelangten sie über das Meer?[/b]

Die Besiedlung der Erde durch die Gattung Mensch zu verstehen, ist nicht eben trivial. Bislang spielte hier vor allem Afrika eine Schlüsselrolle. Frühe Menschen verließen den Kontinent zum ersten Mal vor etwa zwei Millionen Jahren und eroberten von dort aus die Welt, das gilt als gesichert. Was danach passierte, ist aufgrund mangelnder Fossilien-Funde immer noch unklar.

Jetzt rückt immer mehr der Süden Asiens in den Fokus der Paläoanthropologen. Auf der indonesischen Insel Sulawesi entdeckten australische Forscher nun zahlreiche, bis zu 194 000 Jahre alte Steinwerkzeuge. Es seien die bislang ältesten Spuren einer menschlichen Besiedlung der Insel, schreiben sie im Fachmagazin Nature. Bislang dachte man, dass Menschen erst vor etwa 50 000 Jahren die Insel erreichten.
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Plagten Ötzi Bauchschmerzen?

News in Frühzeit des Menschen 1 Kommentar »
[b]
Ein Magenkeim in der Steinzeit-Mumie weist auf frühe Wanderungsbewegungen hin. Der Keim stammt wohl aus Asien. Und er könnte eine Magenschleimhaut-Entzündung verursacht haben.[/b]
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Urmensch auf Zeitreise

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[b]
Nach Lehrbuchmeinung ist der Homo habilis vor 1,5 Millionen Jahren ausgestorben. Bis nun ein mysteriöser Knochen auftauchte.[/b]

Es ist, wie so oft, nur ein einzelner Knochen, der Anthropologen in Aufruhr bringt. In diesem Fall ist es sogar nur ein halber Oberschenkelknochen. Er stammt aus der Maludong-Höhle in der Provinz Yunnan im Südwesten Chinas. Das Fundstück ist nur 14 000 Jahre alt. Aber seine Form passt nicht zu einem Steinzeitmenschen der Gattung Homo sapiens, sondern ähnelt eher der einer Frühmenschenart, die nach bisheriger Lehrmeinung zu jener Zeit längst ausgestorben gewesen sein müsste.

Sollten Vertreter der Gattung Homo habilis (oder auch Homo erectus), die nach gängiger Sicht vor etwa 1,5 Millionen Jahren von der Erde verschwanden, bis zum Ende der jüngsten Eiszeit überlebt haben? Das mutmaßen chinesische und australische Paläontologen in der aktuellen Ausgabe des Fachmagazins Plos One. Das wäre umso erstaunlicher, als alle anderen Menschenarten wie die Neandertaler oder die Denisova-Menschen aus dem südlichen Sibirien spätestens vor 30 000 Jahren verschwanden. Der moderne Mensch habe sie vertrieben, so die gängige Sicht.
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Tausende Jahre altes Skelett: Seltener Fund, aber kein Mordfall

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Ist in Aufhausen bei Eichendorf (Landkreis Dingolfing-Landau) vor vielen tausend Jahren ein Mord passiert? Diese Frage stellten sich die Mitarbeiter der Kreisarchäologie Mitte Juli, als sie bei Grabungen in Aufhausen auf ein Grab aus der Jungsteinzeit stießen.
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Die Drei-Urväter-These

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[b]
Stammen zwei Drittel aller Europäer von nur drei Männern ab? Das will eine genetische Untersuchung herausgefunden haben. Doch die These steht auf wackeligen Beinen. [/b]

Von Robert Gast

Paläoanthropologen wollen die Herkunft des Menschen entschlüsseln - und erliegen dabei gelegentlich der Versuchung, mit spektakulären Thesen aufzuwarten. Nun ist es wieder so weit: Fast zwei Drittel aller Europäer könnten direkte Nachkommen von genau drei Männern sein, die vor 3500 bis 7300 Jahren gelebt haben, mutmaßt ein internationales Paläologen-Team der Universität Leicester im Fachblatt Nature Communications.

Damit bringen sich die Autoren in einen Streit ein, der Altertumsforscher seit Jahren beschäftigt: Stammen Europäer von Bauern ab, die vor 8000 Jahren aus dem Nahen Osten eingewandert sind? Oder dominieren die Gene von Jägern und Sammlern, die bereits in der Jungsteinzeit in Europa lebten?
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Gattung Homo viel älter als gedacht

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[IMG]http://polpix.sueddeutsche.com/polopoly_fs/1.2378817.1425536776!/httpImage/image.jpg_gen/derivatives/640x360/image.jpg[/IMG]
Das bisher älteste Fossil der Gattung Mensch wurde in Äthiopien gefunden. (Foto: AFP)


[LIST]
[*] Forscher haben einen Kieferknochen in Äthiopien gefunden, der die Ursprünge der Menschheit um 400 000 Jahre weiter in die Vergangenheit datiert.
[*]Der Fund deutet auf eine Form zwischen dem Vormenschen Australopithecus und einem Frühmenschen, also der Gattung Homo, hin.
[*]Die Frühmenschen lebten vermutlich in einer Gegend, die der heutigen Kalahari oder Serengeti vergleichbar ist.
[*]Forscher glauben, dass die widrigen Umstände dazu führten, dass sich aus den Vormenschen der Gattung Australopithecus die Frühmenschen der Gattung Homo entwickelten.
[/LIST]

Von Hubert Filser

Würde man die Sache heiter angehen, könnte man sagen: Es ist die Stunde der Unterkiefer. Denn zwei der bogenförmigen, versteinerten Knochen erweitern und vertiefen das Wissen um die menschlichen Ursprünge auf spektakuläre Weise. Der erste deutet auf einen neuen Rekordhalter im Stammbaum, Forscher datieren sein Alter auf 2,8 Millionen Jahre. Das ist ganze 400 000 Jahre älter als alle bisherigen Funde der Gattung Homo (Science, online). Anthropologen fanden LD 350-1, so der wissenschaftliche Name, in zwei größere Stücke zerbrochen in der Afar-Senke in Äthiopien, versteckt im staubigen Boden der Region Ledi-Geraru.

Der zweite Unterkiefer ist einem anderen Ast des weit verzweigten Stammbaums zuzurechnen, er gehört zu einem bereits 1960 gefundenen menschlichen Fossil aus der Olduvai-Schlucht im Norden von Tansania. Anthropologen nennen es kurz OH7 (für Olduvai Hominid Nr. 7) und rechnen es zur Gattung Homo habilis. Das Problem mit diesem Unterkiefer war aber, dass er sich im Lauf der 1,8 Millionen Jahre seit dem Tod seines Besitzers verformt hatte. Da sich die Unterschiede zwischen Frühmenschen oft gerade an Kiefer und Zähnen zeigen, erschwerte das die Analyse.
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Jäger finden uraltes Wollnashorn

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[b]
In Jakutien haben Jäger den Kadaver eines kleinen Wollnashorns entdeckt. Das Tier starb vor vielen Tausend Jahren, ist aber gut erhalten. Forscher sprechen von einem „einzigartigen Fund“.[/b]

Russische Jäger haben im Permafrostboden Sibiriens die Überreste eines kleinen, tausende Jahre alten Wollnashorns entdeckt. Das Eis konservierte das Jungtier so gut, dass ein Auge, ein Ohr und hellbraune Wolle an dem Kadaver erhalten blieben.

Albert Protopopow von der Akademie der Wissenschaften der Teilrepublik Jakutien sprach von einem „einzigartigen Fund“. Untersuchungen, möglicherweise auch mit Hilfe aus dem Ausland, sollten das Alter und die Lebensumstände des Tieres ermitteln, sagte er am Montag der Deutschen Presse-Agentur.
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Göbekli Tepe: Olympia der Steinzeit und die Entwicklung der Schrift

News in Frühzeit des Menschen 1 Kommentar »
[b]
Liegt in der Türkei am "bauchigen Berg" eine Wurzel der menschlichen Schrift? Archäologen glauben, dass die Steinzeitmenschen sich dort einige der ersten symbolischen Nachrichten hinterließen. Die frühen Graffiti konnten vieles ausdrücken. Zum Beispiel: "Ich war hier."
Von Hubert Filser[/b]

Auf den ersten Blick beeindrucken am meisten die wilden Tiere. Schlangen, Füchse, Löwen, Wildschweine und Kraniche bewegen sich über die riesigen Kalksteinfelsen von Göbekli Tepe. Sogar ein jagender Hund ist zu sehen, der erste Bildbeleg für ein gezähmtes Tier in der Geschichte der Menschheit. Es sind Reliefs von großer künstlerischer Qualität, die sich in den 20 gewaltigen Steinkreisen des uralten Kultortes finden. Doch von noch größerer Bedeutung sind die Symbole und Zeichen, die neolithische Steinmetze mit ihren Feuersteinmeißeln aus dem ansonsten geglätteten Stein herausgearbeitet haben: ein Kreis mit einem sichelförmigen Mond, ein C, ein gestürztes H und etwas, das wie der stilisierte Schädel eines Auerochsen wirkt. Es sind die Zeichen einer Revolution, die hier vor 12 000 Jahren stattgefunden hat - auf einem unscheinbaren Berg in der Osttürkei, nahe der heutigen Großstadt Şanlıurfa. Es könnte sein, dass sich hier auch der Ursprung der Schrift befindet.

So zumindest lautet die These, die der Ägyptologe und Schriftexperte Ludwig Morenz von der Universität Bonn in einem soeben erschienenen Buch vertritt ("Medienevolution und die Gewinnung neuer Denkräume. Das frühneolithische Zeichensystem und seine Folgen", EB-Verlag, Berlin, 294 S., 58 Euro). "Das Höhenheiligtum ist so etwas wie das fehlende Bindeglied zwischen Bildern und den ersten Schriftzeichen", sagt Morenz. "Diese frühe Form der Bildzeichen ist mehr als doppelt so alt wie die ältesten Schriftzeichen der Altägypter." Er vermutet, dass diese Symbole zu einer kulturellen Revolution im Denken der Menschen geführt haben.
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Höhlenmalereien in Indonesien mindestens so alt wie in Europa

News in Frühzeit des Menschen Noch keine Kommentare »
[b]
Forscher haben bereits bekannte Höhlenbilder in Indonesien neu datiert. Die Malereien sind rund 40.000 Jahre alt – und bieten der Wissenschaft völlig neue Erkenntnisse.[/b]

[img]http://images.zeit.de/kultur/2014-10/indonesien-hand/indonesien-hand-540x304.jpg[/img]
[SIZE="1"]Darstellung einer Hand auf einer Höhlenwand in Indonesien

Europa ist offenbar nicht die alleinige Wiege der Höhlenmalerei: Auch in Indonesien malten Menschen schon vor rund 40.000 Jahren an Höhlenwände. Auf dieses Alter datierten Wissenschaftler eine auf der indonesischen Insel Sulawesi auf eine Felswand gemalte Hand, wie es in einer im Fachmagazin Nature veröffentlichten Studie heißt. Es könnte sich um eine der ältesten Höhlenmalereien überhaupt handeln.

Die ebenfalls in einer Höhle auf der Insel gefundene Zeichnung eines dickbauchigen Babirusas – einer Art Mischung aus Schwein und Hirsch – ist wohl mindestens 35.400 Jahre alt. Damit sei es womöglich das weltweit älteste bekannte Bild eines Tieres, erklärte das Team australischer und indonesischer Forscher.
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Duell der Räuber

News in Frühzeit des Menschen Noch keine Kommentare »
[b]
20 Jahre nach der Entdeckung altsteinzeitlicher Speere gelingt in Schöningen erneut ein spektakulärer Fund. Frühe Jäger trafen hier auf gefährliche Gegner: Säbelzahntiger. Von Reinhard Osteroth.[/b]

Jordi Serangeli erinnert sich genau, einen solchen Moment vergisst ein Archäologe nie. Am 17. Oktober 2012 wurde er zur Grabung gerufen. Sein Mitarbeiter Martin Kursch zeigte ihm ein freigelegtes Objekt: einen Zahn, pechschwarz gefärbt durch die Einwirkung der Huminsäure im Boden, ölig glänzend, knapp fünf Zentimeter lang. Der Beißer war atemberaubend gut erhalten, von scharfen Sägezähnen umsäumt.

Serangeli stoppte sofort alle anderen Aktivitäten, Ende der Monotonie, Ausnahmezustand. Der Zahn eines Raubtieres, ein extraordinärer Fund, so viel war schnell klar. Aber von was für einem Tier? Serangeli gesteht: "Ich hatte keine Ahnung, ich stand vor einem Rätsel." Auch die Kollegen kamen über Mutmaßungen nicht hinaus. Irgendwann fiel der richtige Tiername – doch rundum noch ungläubige Mienen. Erst quälende zwei Monate später war der Fund bestimmt, und er wurde in dieser Woche der Öffentlichkeit vorgestellt.
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Neandertaler ernährten sich nicht anders

News in Frühzeit des Menschen 3 Kommentare »
[b]
Lange glaubten Forscher, die Neandertaler seien ausgestorben, weil ihr Nahrungsspektrum beschränkt war. Wissenschaftler der Universität Tübingen haben jetzt herausgefunden: Neandertaler ernährten sich nicht anders als die Vorfahren des modernen Menschen.[/b]

Die Neandertaler haben sich nicht anders ernährt als die Vorfahren heutiger Menschen. Davon gehen Forscher der Universität Tübingen unter der Leitung von Professor Hervé Bocherens vom Fachbereich Geowissenschaften und ein Kollege vom Urgeschichtlichen Museum im französischen Les Eyzies-de-Tayac aus.

Einer verbreiteten Hypothese zufolge sollten die Neandertaler gegenüber den Vorfahren des modernen Menschen benachteiligt gewesen sein, weil ihr Nahrungsspektrum eingeschränkt war. Diese Annahme stützt sich auf Isotopenanalysen der Knochen, die Rückschlüsse auf die Ernährung zulassen. Die deutsch-französischen Wissenschaftler fanden nun Hinweise darauf, dass die unterschiedlichen Isotopensignaturen weniger auf verschiedene Speisezettel als auf veränderte Umweltbedingungen zurückzuführen sind.
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Erotik im Fels

News in Frühzeit des Menschen 2 Kommentare »

Nicht nur Wisente und Bären: Eine Höhle in Frankreich kündet von der Lust steinzeitlicher Künstler. Von Urs Willmann


[IMG]http://images.zeit.de/wissen/2014-02/s41-hoehlenzeichnung/s41-hoehlenzeichnung-540x304.jpg[/IMG]
Höhle Les Trois-Frères: An der Felswand erkannte ein Steinzeitmensch einen Riesenphallus – und betonte dessen Umrisse durch Ritzungen. Im Foto haben Archäologen diese Gravuren weiß hervorgehoben. | Foto und Umzeichnung: Association Louis Bégouën

Aber Éric hat doch gesagt, das Eulenloch sei der bequeme Zugang zur Grotte. Durch diesen von Büschen, Bäumen, Moosen fast zugewachsenen Schlund gelange man leicht in die Höhle. Tatsächlich muss man sich dann doch ganz schön bücken und schlängeln. Dahinter geht man im Dunkeln tapsig und krumm weiter wie ein scheuer Bär, dann auf allen vieren durch nassen Lehm, schließlich kriechend wie eine Echse über glitschigen Fels. Steinsplitter bohren sich in die Handballen und Kniescheiben. Als man hofft, dass Érics Einschätzung in Sachen Komfort bald mit der Realität übereinstimmen möge, fällt der Weg senkrecht hinab in einen stummen, schwarzen Schlund, der alles Licht der Funzel schluckt. Die verschmierten Hände krallen sich an die Sprossen einer rostigen Leiter. Sie führt in eine karstige Unterwelt.

Weiter geht’s, auf dem Hosenboden rutschend. Spätestens jetzt fragt man sich, ob Éric Bégouën genauso übertrieben hat, als er von seinem großen Fund erzählt hat. Als er schmunzelnd von einer auffälligen länglichen Struktur im Fels sprach. Von einem "wohlgeformten Körper, den Natur und Mensch gemeinsam geschaffen haben".

Von dessen Besonderheit hat er auch die Fachwelt überzeugt: In der aktuellen Ausgabe von Quartär, dem Internationalen Jahrbuch zur Erforschung des Eiszeitalters und der Steinzeit, führt er detailliert aus, worauf er im Zentrum dieser langen Grotte gestoßen ist. Ausgerechnet im Bereich, der Heiligtum heißt, französisch sanctuaire, hat Éric Bégouën einen Schwanz entdeckt. Nicht den Schwanz eines Tieres. Nein. Die gewaltige Darstellung eines Menschenpenis in Stein.
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Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 154

Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 155

Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 157

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Revolution in der Steinzeit

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Vor 5200 Jahren entstanden auf den schottischen Orkney-Inseln erste Steinkreise, die Vorläufer von Stonehenge. Wozu bloß nahmen die Steinzeitmenschen all die Plackerei auf sich?

Von Hubert Filser


[IMG]http://polpix.sueddeutsche.com/polopoly_fs/1.1897495.1393259541!/httpImage/image.jpg_gen/derivatives/640x360/image.jpg[/IMG]Stonehenge ist wohl der berühmteste Steinkreis, doch bei weitem nicht der einzige

Der Scheiterhaufen im Steinkreis ist schon aufgerichtet. Vom Fluss Avon strömen die Menschen den langen geschwungenen Weg hoch und begleiten ihren toten Anführer bis zu den Erdwällen, die den Kreis der Megalithen umgeben. Zuvor hatten sie nur drei Kilometer entfernt den Fluss hinauf in der heute als Durrington Walls bekannten Anlage ein großes Fest gefeiert und Schweine und Rinder im Feuer gebraten. Jetzt ist die Zeit des Abschieds, der Anführer soll in Stonehenge feierlich verbrannt werden.

So ein Szenario hält der englische Archäologe Michael Parker-Pearson vom University College in London für plausibel. Seine Daten zeigen, dass es in der Nähe des Flusses Avon im Südwesten Englands vor rund 4600 Jahren zwei große Anlagen mit unterschiedlichen Zwecken gab. In der 500 Meter im Durchmesser großen, von Erdwällen und Gräben umgebenen Anlage von Durrington Wells fanden sich 80 000 Knochen von Schweinen und Rindern, in der nahegelegenen Siedlung verzierte Keramiktöpfe mit Spuren von Milchprodukten und Schweinefett, in Stonehenge dagegen Aschereste von mehr als 60 Feuerbestattungen. Stonehenge sei also ein Ort der Toten, Durrington Wells mit seiner nahegelegenen Siedlung der des Lebens und der Feste. Sie hatten "exakt gegensätzliche" Funktionen, so Parker-Pearson.
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Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 153

Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 154

Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 155

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Neandertaler konnten bereits gut sprechen

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[IMG]http://polpix.sueddeutsche.com/bild/1.1349018.1387797776/640x360/neandertatler-evolution-steinzeitmensch.jpg[/IMG]
Würden wir heute einem Neandertaler in moderner Kleidung begegnen, würde er uns vielleicht nicht auffallen

Die Neandertaler unterschieden sich in Bezug auf die Sprachfähigkeit deutlich weniger von modernen Menschen als bislang gedacht. Das zeigt die Untersuchung eines Neandertaler-Zungenbeins.

Die Neandertaler konnten womöglich so gut sprechen wie anatomisch moderne Menschen, erklärt ein internationales Forscherteam um Ruggero D'Anastasio vom Universitäts-Museum im italienischen Chieti.

Die Wissenschaftler haben das Zungenbein eines Neandertalers untersucht, der 1983 in der Kebara-Höhle in Israel gefunden worden war. Schon damals hatte die Form des Knochens, die dem Aussehen beim heutigen Menschen gleicht, die Vermutung befördert, der Neandertaler habe sprechen können.
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(C) Daniel Oswald