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Das Mannheimer Experiment

News in Absolutismus und Aufklärung (1648-1789) 5 Kommentare »
[b]
Multikulti in Deutschland? Die Stadt zwischen Rhein und Neckar hat früh gezeigt, dass es geht.
Von Grit Arnscheidt.[/b]

"Eingenommen, abgebrannt, ausgeplündert", so fand Kurfürst Karl Ludwig bei seiner Rückkehr aus 30-jährigem Exil 1649 Mannheim vor, die von seinem Großvater gegründete Stadt. Mannheim war vom Dreißigjährigen Krieg gezeichnet, der Wiederaufbau sollte zur Hauptaufgabe Karl Ludwigs werden. Und schon nach einem guten Jahrzehnt, das zeigt ein Stadtplan des aus Den Haag stammenden Ingenieurs Jacob van Deyl von 1663, war das Ziel weitgehend erreicht. Nur in unmittelbarer Nähe der Festungswälle und -gräben sieht man noch unbebaute Flächen.

Das Besondere an van Deyls Plan ist aber etwas anderes: Zu Straßen und Grundstücken verzeichnete er penibel die Namen der Hausbesitzer: Menschen aller Herren Länder und Religionen. Ein Viertel deutsche Namen, knapp zwei Drittel französische, der Rest der Grundstücke war in der Hand von Niederländern, Portugiesen oder Familien, deren Herkunft nicht eindeutig ersichtlich ist.
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Spaniens erster Feminist

News in Absolutismus und Aufklärung (1648-1789) Noch keine Kommentare »
[b]
Der Benediktinermönch Feijóo war der größte Aufklärer seines Landes. Die kühnen Thesen des frühen Bestsellerautors sind 250 Jahre nach seinem Tod unvermindert aktuell. Von Friederike Hassauer[/b]

[img]http://images.zeit.de/wissen/geschichte/2014-09/feijoo-moench-revolutionaer/feijoo-moench-revolutionaer-540x304.jpg[/img]
Der Revolutionär aus dem Kloster: Benito Jerónimo Feijóo, Stich von Juan Bernabé Palomino

Leichtfüßig muss die Gänsefeder über das Hadernpapier gehuscht sein: Kiel um Kiel wird so verschlissen, der Vorrat liegt schon geschnitten auf dem Tablett. Tintenfässer sind nachzufüllen, Löschsand ist zu streuen. Die cuculla, die Kapuze mit dem Schulterkragen, ist zurückgeschlagen. Die schweren, fast knielang herabhängenden Tütenärmel des schwarzen Habits müssen immer wieder über die Handgelenke zurückgeschoben werden, weil sie beim Führen der Feder nach vorn rutschen: Der Mann auf dem Kupferstich schreibt druckreif mit der Hand. Nach links geht sein Blick auf einen geöffneten Band, schräg gestellt mit der Lesestütze. Zwischendurch die übliche Reinigung der Hände über der hingereichten Wasserschale, stets sind Tintenflecken, Sandkörner, Gefieder und der Staub der Folianten abzuwaschen. Dann fassen die weißen Finger der Rechten erneut die Feder, die Linke blättert die aufgeschlagene Manuskriptseite zurück. So geht es Tag um Tag, Jahr um Jahr.

Aber wie schafft der Mann dieses Pensum nur?
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Unter dem Getöse von dreihundert Kanonen

News in Absolutismus und Aufklärung (1648-1789) 1 Kommentar »

Mehr als 20 Jahre lang führte Friedrich Krieg – mit einer Armee, die ihresgleichen suchte in Europa. Eisern diszipliniert marschierten die preußischen Soldaten ins Musketenfeuer. Es befehligte sie: der König selbst.


Dunkel, feindlich und drohend ragt die steile Wand empor, vielleicht zehn Meter ist sie hoch, wie eine Trutzburg erhebt sie sich über den morastigen Hohlweg, den die Einheimischen von jeher Kuhgrund nennen. Hunderte haben an dieser Anhöhe ihr Leben gelassen, jeder Zentimeter Boden muss blutgetränkt gewesen sein. »Für Friedrichs Soldaten war es sicher nicht unmöglich, dort hochzukommen«, sagt Grzegorz Podruczny. »Aber es war wie der letzte Schritt eines toten Mannes.«

Niemand kennt das Schlachtfeld von Kunersdorf, das heute Kunowice heißt, jene Stätte unweit der Oderstadt Frankfurt, an der einst das blutigste Gemetzel des Siebenjährigen Krieges stattfand, besser als Podruczny. Systematisch hat der polnische Kunsthistoriker vom Collegium Polonicum in Słubice Wald und Felder nach Zeugnissen der Schlacht abgesucht. Er fand Bleigeschosse, Kartätschenkugeln, Uniformknöpfe und sogar das Skelett eines russischen Grenadiers, den eine Kugel von vorn ins Schulterblatt getroffen hatte. Und jedes Mal, wenn Podruczny vor der steilen Anhöhe steht, fragt er sich: »Was hat Friedrich den Großen bloß bewogen, seine Soldaten in ein derart sicheres Verderben zu schicken?«
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Der erste Diener und seine Untertanen

News in Absolutismus und Aufklärung (1648-1789) Noch keine Kommentare »

Landreform, Folterverbot, Religionsfreiheit: Friedrich II. gilt als der fortschrittlichste Herrscher seiner Zeit. Aber war er das wirklich?


Knapp zwei Jahre nach dem Tod Friedrichs des Großen wurde in Berlin ein Edikt veröffentlicht, in dessen Mitte, in einer eigenen Zeile und durch Sperrdruck hervorgehoben, das Wort "Aufklärung" prangte. Doch nicht als Zeichen des Triumphes war es ausgestellt, sondern zur Anklage: Friedrichs Nachfolger Friedrich Wilhelm II. erklärte mit dem von Johann Christoph von Wöllner verfassten Erlass 1788 den »Krieg gegen die Aufklärung« – und damit nicht nur gegen die preußischen Reformen der vergangenen Jahrzehnte, sondern gegen einen europäischen Entwicklungsprozess, der das ganze Jahrhundert angedauert hatte.
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Genial? Schwul? Nazi?

News in Absolutismus und Aufklärung (1648-1789) 2 Kommentare »
[b]
Zu seinem 300. Geburtstag bewegt Friedrich der Große die Gemüter. Nicht nur in Deutschland: In diesem Gespräch streiten der Historiker Christopher Clark aus Cambridge und sein polnischer Kollege Adam Krzemiński über den Preußenkönig.[/b]

DIE ZEIT: Herr Clark, Herr Krzemiński, der 300. Geburtstag Friedrichs des Großen ist zwar erst am 24. Januar, aber schon jetzt gibt es hierzulande Ausstellungen und Artikelserien zum Thema, und es wachsen die Biografienberge. Welche Assoziationen wecken Preußen und Friedrich der Große denn in Ihren Ländern – in England, in Polen?

Christopher Clark: Ich habe, um mich auf dieses Gespräch vorzubereiten, online in den Protokollen der aktuellen britischen Parlamentsdebatten nach den Wörtern Prussia und Prussianism gesucht. Das gab erstaunlich viele Treffer. In politischen Reden kommt Preußen immer wieder vor, je nach Standpunkt auf unterschiedliche Weise. Für die Linken ist Prussianism ein Schimpfwort. Dann heißt es etwa: »Der Minister ist etwas preußisch vorgegangen.« Er hat also eine Sache einfach oktroyiert. Wenn sich die Tories auf Preußen beziehen, dann eher auf einzelne Episoden der preußischen Geschichte, die sie als eine europäische betrachten und der sie sich durchaus nahe fühlen. Frederick the Great ist für sie eine positive Gestalt. Auch erinnern sie sich gern an die Zeit, in der Preußen und England gemeinsam gegen Napoleon kämpften.

Adam Krzemiński: Entscheidend ist, aus welcher historisch bedingten Rolle heraus man Preußen betrachtet. Im Falle Großbritanniens blickt eine imperiale Großmacht auf eine andere. Ein Pole muss sich entscheiden: Will er sich als Opfer des preußischen Aufstiegs begreifen? Oder will er die Rolle des Siegers einnehmen? Schließlich ist Polen wieder da, Preußen hingegen Geschichte. Aus dieser preußisch-polnischen Verzahnung kann sich allerdings auch eine verlockende Erbschaft ergeben: Die Hälfte des heutigen Polens gehörte bis 1918 zu Preußen. Deswegen habe ich vor einigen Jahren mit dem Titel Preußen, das sind wir – als Erben und Nachfolger – provoziert. Die Nationalkonservativen trumpfen natürlich lieber mit der Opfer-und-Sieger-Geschichte auf und feiern zum Beispiel die große Schlacht von Grunwald 1410, die Schlacht von Tannenberg, wie die Deutschen sie nennen. Damals hat das polnisch-litauische Heer den Deutschen Orden geschlagen. Das soll noch 600 Jahre danach das nationale Selbstwertgefühl heben...


DIE ZEIT: Gibt es in Polen nicht auch ein positives Preußenbild?
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Friedrichs Schoßgebet

News in Absolutismus und Aufklärung (1648-1789) 2 Kommentare »
[b]
Im prüden 19. Jahrhundert "verloren", unter Wilhelm II. "vergessen", hier erstmals gedruckt: Die Hymne Friedrichs des Großen auf die Macht der Lust.[/b]

Dieses Gedicht war ein Gerücht. Noch vor Kurzem bedauerte der britische Historiker Christopher Clark in seinem großen, viel gelesenen Preußen-Buch, dass die Verse wohl verloren seien. Verse aus der Feder Friedrichs des Großen über die Freuden des Orgasmus – das hätte in der Tat den ebenso vielfältigen wie riesigen schriftlichen Nachlass des berühmten Monarchen um eine ungewöhnliche Note bereichert.
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Das letzte Fest des Nicolas Foucquet

News in Absolutismus und Aufklärung (1648-1789) Noch keine Kommentare »
[b]
Er war einer der reichsten und mächtigsten Männer Frankreichs und zeigte das gern. Sein Glanz provozierte Ludwig XIV., und Nicolas Foucquet stürzte tief.[/b]

Am Morgen des 17. August 1661 befindet sich die Dienerschaft auf Schloss Vaux-le-Vicomte, rund vierzig Kilometer südöstlich von Paris gelegen, in höchster Aufregung. Ein Fest wird gegeben, der Herrscher erwartet: der junge König Ludwig XIV. Es soll nicht irgendein Fest werden, nicht eine dieser mehr oder weniger pompösen Geselligkeiten, wie es sie alle Tage gibt in Paris oder auf den Schlössern der Provinz – sondern ein Fest, das der Welt zeigt, was Glanz, was Luxus bedeutet.

Gastgeber sind der 46-jährige Nicolas Foucquet und seine Gemahlin. Als Finanzminister Seiner Majestät und großzügiger Mäzen ist er einer der mächtigsten Männer Frankreichs. Es soll eine Art Housewarming-Party werden; denn erstmals präsentiert Foucquet dem König und der versammelten Pariser Hofgesellschaft sein neues Schloss in voller Pracht. Der Architekt Louis Le Vau hat es in vier Jahren geschaffen: in der ganzen Anlage, in seiner kunstvollen Symmetrie und dem zentralen, an eine barocke Kathedrale erinnernden Kuppelbau ein Meisterwerk der damaligen Avantgarde.
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Montesquieus große Deutschlandreise

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[b]
1728 macht der französische Gelehrte Montesquieu eine längere Reise ins Nachbarland. Szenen einer Entdeckungsfahrt, die hierzulande bis heute unbekannt geblieben ist.
[/b]

Wer immer über das Wesen des heutigen Staats spricht und schreibt, muss ihn zitieren, den Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu, geboren 1689 auf einem Schloss bei Bordeaux, gestorben 1755 in Paris. Denn dieser Richter und Rechtsphilosoph verfasste Schriften zur politischen Kultur der Moderne, die unser Verständnis von liberaler Rechtsstaatlichkeit bis heute prägen.

Vor allem sein Buch über Wesen und Geist der Gesetze, De l’Esprit des Lois, das er 1748 in zwei Bänden publizierte, wurde zum Grundgesetz aller modernen Grundgesetze. Noch zu Montesquieus Lebzeiten in die wichtigsten europäischen Sprachen übersetzt, gehört die darin entwickelte Lehre von der Gewaltenteilung zu den Prinzipien des freiheitlichen Rechtsstaates. Wir alle lernen es heute schon in der Schule: dass die vollziehende Staatsgewalt, die Gesetzgebung und das Gerichtswesen – also Exekutive, Legislative und Judikative – ihren Aufgaben unabhängig voneinander nachkommen müssen, um sich gegenseitig kontrollieren zu können. »Um den Missbrauch von Macht zu verhindern, muss die Macht der Macht Schranken setzen.«

Montesquieu entwickelte seine Gedanken auf langen Reisen durch Frankreich und Europa, wo er Anschauungsunterricht zur Vielfalt der Lebensformen und Verfassungsordnungen seiner Zeit erteilt bekam. So studierte er die von ihm gepriesenen Mechanismen der Gewaltenteilung erstmals während eines Aufenthaltes in England. Hier erließen seit der Glorreichen Revolution von 1688 die gewählten Repräsentanten der Bürger gemeinsam mit dem König und den obersten Lords im Parlament von Westminster die Gesetze. Allerdings entsprach der Zustand der dritten Gewalt, der englischen Justiz, noch keineswegs dem von Montesquieu angestrebten Ideal.

Seine Reisen sind von allen Kennern seines Lebenswerks dokumentiert worden. Umso erstaunlicher ist es, dass die längste seiner politisch-philosophischen Exkursionen bislang nicht die gleiche Aufmerksamkeit gefunden hat: seine Reise nach Deutschland, ins Heilige Römische Reich Deutscher Nation.
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Das gesammelte Wissen der Welt

News in Absolutismus und Aufklärung (1648-1789) Noch keine Kommentare »
[b]
Geht es um ihren Anspruch, hat die Wikipedia einen historischen Urahn, Diderots Encyclopédie von 1751. Auch sie sammelte das Wissen ihrer Zeit und erleuchtete sie damit.[/b]

Die ersten Bände der [i]Encyclopédie ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des Métiers[/i] erschienen im Jahr 1751 und trafen, wie alle Bände danach, auf ein immenses Interesse. Intellektuelle, Ingenieure, aufgeklärte Staatsdiener, Juristen, Ärzte und Manufakturkapitalisten in ganz Europa kauften das Werk des Aufklärers Denis Diderot. Denn es veränderte die Welt, die bis dahin aus Hörensagen, mündlicher Überlieferung, einzelnen aufklärerischen Schriften und kleineren Lexikon-Editionen bestanden hatte.

Diderots Encyclopédie schien den Kontinent zu erleuchten. Sie war ein Angriff auf das christliche Weltbild, das Primat der Kirche und die von Gott abgeleitete Macht der Könige. Denn sie stellte Vernunft, wissenschaftliche Methoden und die Empirie über den Glauben und gilt als das wichtigste Werk der Aufklärung.

Das blieb nicht ohne Kritik. Da Diderot seine Haltung auch in diversen Essays kundgetan hatte, war er noch vor Erscheinen der ersten Bände verhaftet worden und mehrere Monate lang inhaftiert gewesen. Danach wurde er vorsichtiger, publizierte weniger Schriften und versteckte seine radikalen Ansichten in der Encyclopédie oft in frechen Verweisen. So steht unter dem Eintrag über Menschenfresserei der Hinweis "siehe auch unter Eucharistie, Kommunion, Altar etc."
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Es war einmal ein Nicileaks

News in Absolutismus und Aufklärung (1648-1789) 1 Kommentar »
[b]
Vor 200 Jahren starb der Verleger und Publizist Friedrich *Nicolai – ein Verschwörungstheoretiker und Aufklärer, ganz im Sinne von Julian Assange.[/b]

Der Kampf zwischen den Befürwortern von Wikileaks und dessen Gegnern erscheint als moderner Kampf zwischen den Anhängern unbegrenzter Informationsverbreitung und deren geheimnisschützenden Widersachern. Doch der Streit hat historische Vorläufer: Staatsräson und öffentliches Interesse, diskrete Kabinettspolitik und schrankenlose Publizität stehen seit der Frühen Neuzeit in einem spannungsgeladenen Verhältnis. Ganz besondere Brisanz gewann diese Dialektik von Öffentlichkeit und Geheimnis in der Zeit der Aufklärung – und hier insbesondere durch den enthusiastischen Aufklärer Friedrich Nicolai.
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Mit Wut und Mut

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[b]
Friederike Caroline Neuber begann als fahrende Komödiantin. Doch als "die Neuberin" vor 250 Jahren starb, hatte sie einer neuen Theaterepoche den Weg bereitet.[/b]

[img]http://images.zeit.de/wissen/geschichte/2010-11/Friederike-Caroline-Neuber/Friederike-Caroline-Neuber-540x304.jpg[/img]
Friederike Caroline Neuber war eine bedeutende Bühnenkünstlerin im 18. Jahrhundert

Theaterkünstler sind, schon aus geringer zeitlicher Entfernung betrachtet, Spukgestalten: Sie verausgaben sich im Augenblick, sie hinterlassen kaum Spuren. Jedoch, der Name Friederike Caroline Neuber sagt uns noch heute etwas, 250 Jahre nach ihrem Tod. Sie war wohl keine geniale Künstlerin, aber eine große Vorbereiterin. Sie war auf eine so energische und ungestüme Weise »zu früh« aufgetaucht, dass ihr ein Platz in der Geschichte sicher ist...
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Der Mann, der niemals starb

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[b]
Berühmt wurde er vor 250 Jahren als Geheimdiplomat in Frankreichs Diensten. Doch der mysteriöse Graf von Saint-Germain war weitaus mehr. Er war Komponist, Alchimist, Unternehmer, Glücksritter. Demnächst tritt er in Hamburg auf – für Frieden und Freiheit.[/b]

Seine diplomatische Laufbahn ist spektakulär, aber kurz – und endet abrupt. Mitten im Siebenjährigen Krieg, zu Beginn des Jahres 1760, reist er im Auftrag des französischen Königs Ludwig XV. in die Niederlande. Er soll bei holländischen Banken die Kredite für Frankreich sichern. So jedenfalls lautet der offizielle Auftrag der inoffiziellen Mission.

Tatsächlich aber ist alles ungleich heikler: Vorbei am Außenminister, dem Herzog von Choiseul, hat Ludwig den eleganten und in vielen Sprachen versierten Emissär, der sich gewöhnlich Graf von Saint-Germain nennt, in den Haag entsandt, um das Terrain für einen Frieden mit den Briten zu sondieren. Das jedenfalls wird später kolportiert. Der Krieg gegen England und Preußen geht bereits ins vierte Jahr, und Ludwig ist des Kampfes müde. Saint-Germain gilt als intimer Kenner der englischen Verhältnisse. Einige Zeit hat er auf den Britischen Inseln gelebt, bevor er in Frankreich die Gunst der Marquise de Pompadour erlangte und damit zum Ohr des Königs fand.
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Ältester Champagner der Welt gefunden - er schmeckt

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[b]
Vermutlich eine Gabe von Ludwig XVI. an den russischen Zaren: In einem Schiffswrack in der Ostsee entdeckten Taucher sehr alten Champagner. [/b]

Die Geheimnisse der Meere gehören zu den schönsten Anregern der Fantasie. Was liegt da alles am Grund?

Zum Beispiel Champagner, der mehr als 230 Jahre alt ist und noch schmeckt. In einem Schiffswrack in der Ostsee zwischen Schweden und Finnland haben Taucher den vermutlich ältesten Edel-Schaumwein der Welt entdeckt.

Die 30 bestens erhaltenen Flaschen, auf denen allerdings kein Etikett war, könnten nach Angaben einer Weinexpertin und eines Tauchers vom Samstag aus einer der ersten Lieferungen von Veuve Clicquot stammen.

ANZEIGE

Die Taucher fanden die Ware nahe den finnischen Aland-Inseln. Aller Wahrscheinlichkeit nach handle es sich um Veuve Clicquot, sagt der Leiter der Tauchmission, Christian Ekström: "Wir stehen im Kontakt mit Moët & Chandon, und sie sind sich zu 98 Prozent sicher, dass es sich um Veuve Clicquot handelt."

Auf dem Korken sei ein Anker, so Ekström, und dieses Symbol habe in der Champagne nur dieser Hersteller verwendet. "Laut unseren Archiven stammt die Flasche aus den 1780er Jahren", sagt der Cheftaucher. Die Produktion von Veuve Clicquot habe 1772 begonnen, die erste Flasche sei aber erst 1782 ausgeliefert worden. "Also kann es nicht vor 1782 sein und auch nicht nach 1789, weil die Französische Revolution die Produktion stillgelegt hat."

Sollte sich das Alter bestätigen, wäre damit der Weltrekord des ältesten trinkbaren Champagners gebrochen. Bislang hält eine Flasche Perrier Jouët aus dem Jahr 1825 den Rekord. Da der Champagner im Wasser bestens gekühlt wurde, schmeckte er trotz seines hohen Alters gut, wie die Önologin Ella Grüssner Cromwell-Morgan feststellte. "
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Der Gottesbetrug

News in Absolutismus und Aufklärung (1648-1789) 1 Kommentar »
Moses, Jesus und Mohammed haben die Menschen belogen, Gott ist nur eine verrückte Idee und die unsterbliche Seele eine Chimäre. Das behauptete vor mehr als 300 Jahren ein anonymer Verfasser in dem wohl radikalsten Text der Aufklärung, dem [i]Traité des trois imposteurs[/i], dem [i]Traktat über die drei Betrüger[/i]. In Frankreich ist er in den letzten Jahren immer wieder aufgelegt worden. Was macht ihn so spannend?
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»Der gute König« Heinrich IV.: Ein heiterer Mann

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[b]
Krieger und Friedensstifter, legendärer Liebhaber und begeisterter Vater: Frankreich liebt bis heute seinen »guten König« Heinrich IV., der am 14. Mai 1610 in Paris ermordet wurde. Ein Lebensbild des vitalen Monarchen.[/b]

Ein Historiker von Rang, der seine Geschichte der Franzosen mit getragenem Ernst, ja einer gewissen Feierlichkeit niederschrieb, fand unversehens heitere Töne, als seine Erzählung bei Henri Quatre anlangte. König Heinrich IV. habe sich, als er der Macht über das Land endlich sicher sein konnte, als »ein Ausbund an Vitalität« erwiesen – trotz seiner 47 Jahre (die in jener Epoche als ein vorgerücktes Alter galten) und trotz des ergrauten Bartes und der allzu prominenten Nase, die fast seine Oberlippe erreichte, immer noch ausgesprochen gut aussehend.

Heinrichs Charakter, schreibt Guillaume-André de Bertier de Sauvigny in seinem 1977 erschienenen Buch weiter, sei von dem »unsteten Leben eines Partisanenführers« geprägt worden, sein politisches Urteil von den Wechselfällen des Geschicks geschärft; er habe in allen Regionen und Winkeln Frankreichs das Leben seiner einfachsten Untertanen kennengelernt, was für einen König ganz ungewöhnlich gewesen sei. »Er bezauberte durch seinen Elan, seine gute Laune, seine ungezwungenen Manieren, seinen Geist, seinen Witz, seinen verzeihenden Großmut und durch seine Fähigkeit, Befehle als Bitten« zu formulieren.
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Jetzt werden alle reich

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Der Mann, der vor 300 Jahren in Paris den modernen Kapitalismus erfand: Das Lebensabenteuer des John Law und das Schicksal seiner »Banque Royale«.


[img]http://images.zeit.de/wissen/geschichte/2010-03/john-law-bankier/john-law-bankier-540x304.jpg[/img]
Diese Zeichnung von circa 1720 zeigt den schottischen Bankier und Nationalökonom John Law

Der Mann, der den modernen Kapitalismus erfand, war ein Mörder. Er war auch ein Spieler, ein Gefängnisausbrecher, ein Frauenheld. Und natürlich war er ein Geschäftsmann. Vor allem aber war er ein Mensch, der sich seine eigenen Maßstäbe setzte und den es wenig kümmerte, was andere davon hielten. Wahrscheinlich musste das so sein. Wahrscheinlich hätte er sonst nie diesen verrückten Gedanken gehabt.
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Wie Friedrich I. Berlin zu wahrer Größe verhilft

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[b]
Bis 1. Januar 1710 ist Berlin kaum mehr als ein kleines Städtchen. Preußenkönig Friedrich I. ändert das durch eine angeordnete Vereinigung. Von Hellmuth Vensky[/b]

Nur eine Stadt in Deutschland kann sich berechtigt Metropole nennen. Na gut, man mag Erfurt die Thüringenmetropole nennen, Nürnberg die Frankenmetropole und Euskirchen die Eifelmetropole. Aber die einzige Stadt in Deutschland, die keinen Lachkrampf auslöst, wenn sie als Metropole bezeichnet wird, ist ja wohl Berlin. Dabei gibt es dieses hauptstädtische Berlin erst seit 300 Jahren.
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Wunder, Wunder, Wunder!

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[b]
Zeit der Krisen, Zeit der Scharlatane. Ein besonders genialer war der Deutsche Katterfelto, der im England der Aufklärung Furore machte.[/b]

Die Grippe raste auf London zu. Irgendwo im Osten Europas oder womöglich gar bei den unheimlichen Chinesen hatte sie ihren Anfang genommen, übers Baltikum, über Preußen und Holland war sie herangeeilt – schon hatte sie britischen Boden erreicht. Allenfalls ein paar Tage konnte es noch dauern, bis schwerer Atem, Husten, Schüttelfrost, Gliederschmerzen und nächtliche Delirien die Bevölkerung der englischen Hauptstadt in die Knie zwingen würden.

Mit Tausenden von Kranken war zu rechnen, mit Toten. Vor allem in den Armenvierteln der Stadt würde die Epidemie leichtes Spiel haben. Eine Katastrophe drohte. Aufklärung tat not. Es war seine Pflicht, Alarm zu schlagen. Und so ließ er am 15. April 1782 im Morning Herald verkünden: »Herr Katterfelto wird sein Sonnenmikroskop vorführen und dabei die seltsamen Insekten zeigen, die das Königreich mit einer schweren Seuche bedrohen, wenn sie nicht bald vernichtet werden.« Die Kampagne hatte begonnen.
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Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 157

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Gestorben muß seyn

News in Absolutismus und Aufklärung (1648-1789) 1 Kommentar »
[b]
Über Tod und Leben, Armut und Luxus konnte Abraham a Sancta Clara predigen wie kein Zweiter. Noch immer fasziniert seine barocke Sprachfantasie. Doch leider war er auch ein fanatischer Mönch. Ein Porträt zum 300. Todestag des Wiener Augustiners.[/b]

Allein der Name ist schon Verkündigung. Er kündet von den weiten Glaubensbögen, die dieser wortgewaltige Augustinermönch zu schlagen pflegte, sobald er auf die Kanzel stieg: von den Ursprungsmythen des Alten Testaments zur christlichen Ordensfrömmigkeit. Geradezu heilsprogrammatisch steht in seinem Namen der biblische Übervater neben der heiligen Klara von Assisi, die im 13. Jahrhundert den Klarissenorden gründete, den weiblichen Zweig der Franziskaner. Mit »Sancta Clara« könnte aber auch eine wie immer geartete »heilige Klarheit« gemeint sein – und mit ihr der Versuch, dem noch tief im Mittelalter wurzelnden Katholizismus ein Quäntchen Vernunft einzuflößen.
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Weder Gott noch Zufall

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[b]
Das wilde Denken des Julien Offray de La Mettrie zeigt eine andere Seite der Aufklärung. Zum 300. Geburtstag des Arztes und Philosophen, des großen Skeptikers und Theoretikers des Genusses ein Porträt.[/b]

An einem Novembertag des Jahres 1751 starb in Berlin der Philosoph Julien Offray de La Mettrie. Die Nachricht sorgte vielerorts für Freude. »La Mettrie ist erledigt«, schrieb der Berner Mathematiker Johann Samuel König. »Die Maschine ist kaputtgegangen, von nun an lässt er die Welt in Ruhe.«
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Die letzte Reise

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Also doch. Dem schmächtigen und, wie er selbst sagt, „knotigen“ Kepler, der „den Berg am liebsten hinaufgeht statt herunter, möglichst im tiefsten Dickicht“, schwindelt. Jakob, sein Gehilfe und frischgebackener Schwiegersohn, weiß es vom Schlossbaumeister, dem beinahe einzigen Kontakt der Keplers im schlesischen Sagan. Anfang Juli wären 13 000 Schweden unter König Gustav Adolf in Peenemünde gelandet, jetzt ist September. Er sei die Oder hinaufgefahren, Sagan liegt an einem ihrer Nebenflüsse und gehört zu Wallenstein. Kepler steht im Jahre 1630 für 1000 Gulden in dessen Diensten und der Schwede, ermutigt von Wallensteins Debakel vor Stralsund, sucht jetzt den Generalissimus des Kaisers ganz zu vernichten, die Atempause im 30jährigen Krieg ist zu Ende.
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Friedrich Schiller

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[b]
Wie schwach und krank war sein Leib, doch wie kraftvoll ist sein Werk! Des Dichters klassisches Rezept: Eiserne, heitere Disziplin bis zuletzt.[/b]

Zehn Tage nach Friedrich Schillers Tod am 9. Mai 1805 präsentierte der weimarische Hofmedikus Wilhelm Ernst Christian Huschke das Obduktionsergebnis. »Folgendes Merckwürdige« habe er mitzuteilen: Die Rippenknorpel Schillers seien »starck verknöchert«, die rechte Lunge sei mit dem Rippenfell und dem Herzbeutel derart verwachsen, »daß es kaum mit dem Messer gut zu trennen war. Diese Lunge war faul u. brandig, breiartig u. ganz desorganisirt.« Das Herz? Ein »leerer Beutel«, runzelig und »ohne Muskelsubstanz«. Die Ränder der Leber »brandig«. Die Gallenblase »noch einmal so groß als im natürl. Zustande u. strotzend von Galle«. Auch die Milz übergroß. Die Nieren in »ihrer Substanz aufgelöst«, die Därme mit dem Bauchfell verwachsen. Blase und Magen indes in bester Ordnung. »Bey diesen Umständen«, so der Arzt knapp, »muß man sich wundern, wie der arme Mann so lange hat leben können.«
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Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 153

Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 154

Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 155

Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 157

Deprecated: Function ereg_replace() is deprecated in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/inc/code.php on line 7

Deprecated: Function ereg_replace() is deprecated in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/inc/code.php on line 8

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Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/inc/code.php on line 45

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/inc/code.php on line 54

Lebendige Tradition

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Mit der Auflösung Tausender Klöster im Zeitalter der Aufklärung schien das Ende des monastischen Lebens gekommen zu sein. Doch dem Niedergang folgte eine neue Blüte, und auch heute gibt es weltweit noch rund 945000 Ordensleute.
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Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 153

Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 154

Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 155

Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 157

Deprecated: Function ereg_replace() is deprecated in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/inc/code.php on line 7

Deprecated: Function ereg_replace() is deprecated in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/inc/code.php on line 8

Deprecated: Function ereg_replace() is deprecated in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/inc/code.php on line 28

Deprecated: Function ereg_replace() is deprecated in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/inc/code.php on line 29

Deprecated: Function ereg_replace() is deprecated in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/inc/code.php on line 30

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Deprecated: Function ereg_replace() is deprecated in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/inc/code.php on line 34

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Deprecated: Function ereg_replace() is deprecated in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/inc/code.php on line 37

Deprecated: Function ereg_replace() is deprecated in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/inc/code.php on line 38

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/inc/code.php on line 45

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/inc/code.php on line 54

Bestseller des Barock

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Abenteuer des Simplicissimus für jeden Tag: Ein Jenaer Forscher hat unbekannte Grimmelshausen-Kalender entdeckt.
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Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 153

Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 154

Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 155

Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/index.php on line 157

Deprecated: Function ereg_replace() is deprecated in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/inc/code.php on line 7

Deprecated: Function ereg_replace() is deprecated in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/inc/code.php on line 8

Deprecated: Function ereg_replace() is deprecated in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/inc/code.php on line 28

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Deprecated: Function ereg_replace() is deprecated in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/inc/code.php on line 37

Deprecated: Function ereg_replace() is deprecated in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/inc/code.php on line 38

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/inc/code.php on line 45

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /homepages/7/d117952006/htdocs/historik/inc/code.php on line 54

Ein «mittlerer Charakter» von königlicher Grösse

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Eine Schau im Pariser Grand Palais evoziert das Leben der letzten Königin von Frankreich. Dank der genialen Szenografie von Robert Carsen erzählen die Exponate eine Tragödie in drei Akten nach.
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(C) Daniel Oswald